3G & 4G presentation

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1. 3G & 4G 101/01/2017 2. IN THE NAME OF GOD 01/01/2017 2 3. PHONE SUBSCRIBERS NOW EXCEEDS WIRELESS : THE WORD WIRELESS IN DICTIONARY DEFINED “HAVING NO WIRES…
  • 1. 3G & 4G 101/01/2017
  • 2. IN THE NAME OF GOD 01/01/2017 2
  • 3. PHONE SUBSCRIBERS NOW EXCEEDS WIRELESS : THE WORD WIRELESS IN DICTIONARY DEFINED “HAVING NO WIRES MOBILITY: HANDLING THE USER WHO CHANGES POINT OF ATTACHMENT TO NETWORK 301/01/2017
  • 4. DISADVANTAGE : DECREASED SIGNAL STRENGTH INTERFERENCE FROM OTHER SOURCES MULTIPATH PROPAGATION … ADVANTAGE : CONSTANT CONNECTION ACCESS TO UP TO DATE INFORMATION NO CABLES EXTENSIBILITY FREEDOM TO ROAM … 401/01/2017
  • 5. WIRELESS INTRODUCTION : 1. INFRASTRUCTURE MODE : EXAMPLE (Wifi) network infrastructure 501/01/2017
  • 6. 2. AD HOC MODE : EXAMPLE (BLUETOOTH) 601/01/2017
  • 7. CELLULAR NETWORK BASICS : CELLULAR NETWORK/TELEPHONY IS A RADIO-BASED TECHNOLOGY; RADIO WAVES ARE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES THAT ANTENNAS PROPAGATE MOST SIGNALS ARE IN THE 850 MHZ, 900 MHZ, 1800 MHZ, AND 1900 MHZ FREQUENCY BANDS Cell phones operate in this frequency range (note the logarithmic scale) 701/01/2017
  • 8. Cellular Network : Base stations transmit to and receive from mobiles at the assigned spectrum Multiple base stations use the same spectrum (spectral reuse) The service area of each base station is called a cell Each mobile terminal is typically served by the ‘closest’ base stations Handoff when terminals move 801/01/2017
  • 9. COMPONENTS OF CELLULAR NETWORK ARCHITECTURE : Benefits : More capacity due to spectral reuse Lower transmission power due to smaller transmitter/receiver distances reduced power usage larger coverage area reduced interference from other signals WORKING 901/01/2017
  • 10. Cellular Network Generations : It is useful to think of cellular Network/telephony in terms of generations: 0G: Briefcase-size mobile radio telephones 1G: Analog cellular telephony 2G: Digital cellular telephony 3G: High-speed digital cellular telephony (including video telephony) 4G: IP-based “anytime, anywhere” voice, data, and multimedia telephony at faster data rates than 3G (to be deployed in 2012–2015) 1001/01/2017
  • 11. EVOLUTION OF CELLULAR NETWORKS : 1G 2G 3G 4G2.5G 1101/01/2017
  • 12. 1G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY: DEVELOPED IN 1980 Using Analog signals focus on voice It's Speed was up to 2.4kbps. Frequency typically 150MHz & above DRAWBACKS OF 1G: Poor battery Poor voice quality Large in size No security no data service incompatible standards Frequency call drop 1201/01/2017
  • 13. 2G Wireless Technology : developed in 1991 digital transmission technology GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS) THE PROTOCOLS FOR SECOND-GENERATION (2G) It enables services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media message). It’s data speed was up to 64kbps. It provides better quality and capacity Drawbacks Of 2G : Weaker digital signal These systems are unable to handle complex data such as Videos. Reduce range of sound 1301/01/2017
  • 14. 2.5 G : GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE (GPRS) SERVICES : MMS & SMS SEARCH AND DIRECTORY 2.75 G : ENHANCED DATA RATES FOR GSM EVOLUTION (EDGE (ENHACED GPRS)) WORKS ONLY ON GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS) NETWORK 1401/01/2017
  • 15. 3G OVERVIEW : 3G, SHORT FOR THIRD GENERATION, IS THE THIRD GENERATION OF WIRELESS MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY 3G IS CREATED BY ITU IN 2004 AND IS CALLED IMT-2000 APPLICATIONS ARE : VIDEO SURVEILLANCE MONITORING USING 3G NETWORK. VIDEO CONFERENCING FROM ANYWHERE USING 3G NETWORK. MAKING REMOTE ACCESS NETWORK CONNECTIVITY FOR SMALL BRANCHES ENABLING (PARTIAL) ACCESS TO CRITICAL ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS LIKE ERP, CRM, BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE ON YOUR MOBILE PHONE USING 3G NETWORK. REDUCE LONG DISTANCE VOICE CALL CHARGES USING VOIP COMMUNICATIONS AND 3G NETWORK. 3G NETWORK AS THE BACK-UP (OR) EVEN PRIMARY INTERNET ACCESS METHOD FOR SMB COMPANIES. 1501/01/2017
  • 16. THE FOLLOWING STANDARDS ARE TYPICALLY BRANDED 3G: UTMS : (UNIVERSAL MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE) SYSTEM STANDARDIZED BY 3GPP (3RD GENERATION PARTNERSHIP PROJECT ) HSDPA : HIGH-SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESS HIGH DATA TRANSFER SPEED (UP TO 8- 10 MBPS) 1601/01/2017
  • 17. CDMA : CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS EACH SYMBOL OF BIT IS TRANSMITTEDAS A LARGER NUMBER OF BITS USINGTHE USER SPECIFIC CODE TDMA : TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS TIME IS DIVIDED INTO SLOTS AND ONLY ONE MOBILE TERMINAL TRANSMITS DURING EACH SLOT FDMA: Frequency division multiple access Each mobile is assigned a separate frequency channel for the duration of the call 1701/01/2017
  • 18. ADVANTAGES OF 3G: A. RICH MULTI MEDIA SERVICES ARE AVAILABLE B. BANDWIDTH, SECURITY AND RELIABILITY ARE MORE C. PROVIDES INTEROPERABILITY AMONG SERVICE PROVIDERS D. AVAILABILITY OF FIXED AND VARIABLE RATES E. SUPPORT TO DEVICES WITH BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY WITH EXISTING NETWORKS F. ALWAYS ONLINE DEVICES – 3G USES IP CONNECTIVITY WHICH IS PACKET BASED … DISADVANTAGES OF 3G: A. THE COST OF CELLULAR INFRASTRUCTURE , UPGRADING BASE STATIONS IS VERY HIGH B. NEEDS DIFFERENT HANDSETS. C. ROAMING AND DATA/VOICE WORK TOGETHER HAS NOT YET BEEN IMPLEMENTED D. POWER CONSUMPTION IS HIGH E. REQUIRES CLOSER BASE STATIONS AND ARE EXPENSIVE … 1801/01/2017
  • 19. 3G VS 4G 1901/01/2017
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  • 22. HISTORY: •The 4G system was originally envisioned by IEEE & the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). • The DARPA selected the distributed architecture and end-to-end Internet protocol (IP), and in peer-to-peer networking. 2201/01/2017
  • 23. COMPARISON OF LTE SPEED 2301/01/2017
  • 24. WHY 4G OVER 3G? • 4G (LTE) is quicker than 3G • 4G holds: less buffering better audio quality improved gaming experience streaming services with reduced lag. • Our 4G Plus network uses the 2300 & 2600 & 3500 MHz frequency bands • Our 3G Plus network uses the 900 & 1800 & 1900 & 2100 MHz frequency bands 2401/01/2017
  • 25. THE MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 3G & 4G Parameters 3G 4G Main Feature Voice & data Converged data & VoIP Architecture Wide area cell based Integration of Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area Frequency Band 1.6 – 2.5 GHz 2 – 8 GHz Bandwidth 5 – 20 MHz 100+ MHz Data Rate 385 kbps – 2 Mbps 20 – 100 Mbps Access WCDMA/CDMA2000 OFDM Switching Circuit/Packet Packet IP Multiple Version All IP (IPv6.0) Operational 2002 2010 2501/01/2017
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  • 27. COMPONENTS OF 4G: • There are some components which makes the successful 4G systems they are: a) OFDMA b) MIMO c) IPv6.0 d) Spectral efficiency of 4G e) SDR(Software Defined Radio) f) Smart antennas 2701/01/2017
  • 28. OFDMA OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access. • It captures entire energy • Only few signals are affected or lost in OFDM while compared to CDMA in 3G. 2801/01/2017
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  • 32. MAJOR 4G RADIO TECHNOGIES • Uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for downlink • Uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) for uplink • Uses Multi-input Multi-output(MIMO) for enhanced throughput • Reduced power consumption • Higher RF power amplifier efficiency (less battery power used by handsets) 3201/01/2017
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  • 36. MIMO MIMO(Multi Input Multi Output): • improve the communication performance between sender and receiver • range, quality of received signal and spectrum efficiency are high. • Till 8 antennas in download and 4 antennas in upload 3601/01/2017
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  • 38. IPV6.0: THE IP ADDRESS IS BASED ON IPV6. IPV4: X . X . X . X (32 BITS) EXAMPLE: 216.37.129.9 IPV6:4 × IPV4 (128 BITS) EXAMPLE: 216.37.129.9 , 79.23.178.229 , 65.198.2.10 , 192.168.5.120 home address care-of address mobile IP address local network address 3801/01/2017
  • 39. IPv4 IPv6 Structure 32 bits 128 bits Security Poor security Enhance security Function Addressing 1. Multi-fun. and mobile fun. are built-in 2. Plug & Play (Auto- Configuration) IPV4 VS. IPV6 3901/01/2017
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  • 43. 4G APPLICATIONS (1/3) Apps Definition Virtual Presence • Uses hologram-generating virtual reality programs that provide an artificial presence just about anywhere. For example, decide if you want to personally respond when someone rings your front door while you are away from home. • This means that 4G provides user services at all times, even if the user is off-site. Virtual Navigation provides users with virtual navigation through which a user can access a database of the streets, buildings etc. • A remote database contains the graphical representation of streets, buildings, and physical characteristics of a large metropolis. • Blocks of this database are transmitted in rapid sequence to a vehicle, where a rendering program permits the occupants to visualize the environment ahead. Tele Geo-processing applications Combination of GIS(Geographical Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) in which a user can get the location by querying. Tele Medicine and Education & Crisis Management Tele Medicine and Education: 4G will support remote health monitoring of patients. For people who are interested in life long education, 4G provides a good opportunity. Crisis Management: Natural disasters can cause break down in communication systems. In today’s world it might take days or 7 weeks to restore the system. But in 4G it is expected to restore such crisis issues in a few hours. 4301/01/2017
  • 44. Apps Definition Sensors in public vehicle • Putting a chemical‐biological‐nuclear (CBN) warning sensor on every government‐owned vehicle instantly creates a mobile fleet that is the equivalent of an army of highly trained dogs. • As these vehicles go about their daily duties of law enforcement, garbage collection, sewage and water maintenance, etc. The sensors on the vehicles can talk to fixed devices mounted on light poles throughout the area, so positive detection can be reported in real time. • Since 4G networks can include inherent geo‐location without GPS, first responders will know where the vehicle is when it detects it. Camera in traffic light • Some major cities have deployed cameras on traffic lights and send those images back to a central command center. This is generally done using fiber, which limits where the cameras can be hung, i.e., no fiber, no camera. • 4G networks allow cities to deploy cameras and backhaul them wirelessly. Fast Route Selection & Traffic control during disasters Fast Route Selection • Using a 4G network, those images can also be sent from the command center back out to the streets. Ambulances and fire trucks facing congestion can query various cameras to choose an alternate route. • Police, stuck in traffic on major thoroughfares, can look ahead and make a decision as to whether it would be faster to stay on the main roads or exit to side roads. Traffic control during disasters • 4G networks can allow officials to access traffic control boxes to change inland traffic lanes to green. Instead of having to send officers to every box on roads being overwhelmed by civilians who are evacuating, it can all be done remotely, and dynamically. 4401/01/2017
  • 45. ADVANTAGE OF 4G: • Wider bandwidths and higher bitrates. • Entirely Packet-Switched networks. • Better response time. 10 times better then 3G • Works at 2.6GHz frequency • Less time to build 4G • It use the same tower and fiber cables as 3Gs - they only have to upgrade the towers with 4G components. • Scalability of mobile network. 4501/01/2017
  • 46. Thank you Mohammad pooya malek : +989379595379 mopoma1995@gmail.com Mohammad ahmadi: +989366805665 4601/01/2017
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  • 48. REFERENCES  https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/4G_Wireless_systems  http://connectindia-2011.blogspot.com/2011_04_01_archive.html  http://www.slideshare.net/cgoyal4/generations-of-mobile- communicationg-vs  http://www.scribd.com/doc/210781507/4g  http://my.safaribooksonline.com/book/-/9789332508156/23dot-next- generation-cellular-technology-4g/c23s9_xhtml  https://about4glte.wordpress.com/applications/ • http://mobilebroadband.ir • http://www.slideshare.net/3G 4801/01/2017
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