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  What is the title? The role of students’ attitudes and motivation in second language learning in online language courses.   What is the field of linguistic inquiry? Second language learning Who is/are the author/s? Eiko Ushida from the University of California, San Diego What is the research about? The research is about finding the relationship between students’ attitudes and motivation in second language learning in online language courses. What is the problem statement? /How is the research problematised?    It is proven that students’ motivation and attitudes play a major role in determining the success of second language learning based on many empirical studies and literature. However, many of these studies do not take place within the computer assisted language learning (CALL) and in online-language-learning context. Since many researches prove that CALL brings more benefits in terms of the students’ attitudes and motivation in learning, it is reasonable to research further on how these online language courses affect both attitudes and motivation of the students. What research gap does the study aim to fulfil? This study aims to fulfill the gap in terms of the role and relationship that students’ motivation and attitudes have towards the effectiveness of second language online courses and students’ second language learning. What is the aim of the research? What is/are the research question/s? The aim of this research is to examine the roles of motivation and attitudes on stud ents’ second language learning in an online language course. The research questions are as follows: 1)   What are the patterns of motivation and attitude toward the study and learning of French and Spanish on the part of students who participate in LOL courses? 2)   How do the students’ attitudes and motivation relate to their L2 learning in LOL courses?  3)   What factors affect students’ attitudes and motivation and thus, at least indirectly, their success in the study and learning of French and Spanish in LOL courses?    What is the data used? How was it obtained?    The data obtained are complementary quantitative and qualitative data.    The data include students’ background, measures of attitudes and motivation, descriptive data for learning environments, measures of learning behavior and course participation and measures of outcomes.    Three types of questionnaires have been administered to the students. -   General Background Questionnaire (GBQ) collected data on students ’ demographic information -   Technology Background Questionnaire (TBQ) gathered data on students’ experience and exposure in using technology. -   Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) which Gardner and Smythe (1981) have developed to examine students’ attitude and motivation. However, for the purpose of t his research, it has been modified with sub-categories that deal with items related to the use of technology in second language learning.    The qualitative data was also collected through weekly class observation and interviews.    Students’ learning behavior and participation have been studied through class attendance record, homework, submission record and participation in learning activities.    The measurement of learning outcomes was done through examining students’ results of module tests, the final exam, the midterm grade and the final grade.    The teacher also assessed students’ oral skills at the end of the semester using The Stanford Foreign Language Oral Skills Evaluation Matrix (FLOSEM).    Interviews were only done to the teachers; not with the students and Language Assistant who were also involved in the study. What is the research methodology used for the study? Qualitative/ Quantitative/Mixed method/Others?    The participants of this study were the students who enrolled in Elementary French Online (EF), Elementary Spanish Online (ES) and Intermediate Spanish Online (IS) courses in Fall 2002.    9 students in EF, 14 in ES and 7 in IS (30 respondents). The study also involved the course teacher and language assistant (LA). Students met with the teacher and coursemates once a week for 50 minutes and the rest of the activities were conducted outside the class, face-to-face or online. The students studied the language and culture on their own which involved participating in online chat session and completing bulletin board assessment and also met with the teacher to practice their oral skill once a week for 20 minutes. *Refer to the previous answer  Is there a theoretical framework? Yes -Gardner & MacIntyre (1993) socioeducational model which investigate thoroughly on the role of integrative motivation in L2 attainment - Dornyei (1994) Components of Foreign Language Learning Motivation which highlights the motivational factors that will enhance students’ motivation to learn What is/are the finding/s of the study? Was the aim fulfilled?    The results of this research showed a positive relationship between students’ motivation and attitude and the study and learning of French and Spanish. Over the 15-week semester, it was evident that students’ attitudes toward French and Spanish culture grew more positive over time due to the course’s well designed materials that helped students to learn the culture better.    It is also shown from the data that students have a relatively high anxiety about the LOL course at the beginning of the semester. This is not because they are not familiar with using computers but rather they are not exposed to the new language learning environment that contradict to the normal face-to-face language classrooms.    It was also observed that students were difficult to get to know each other as the students only met each other once a week. This has affected the classroom atmosphere as the students felt distant with each other which later led to the high anxiety of the students.    Since they rarely met each other, they lacked authentic communication. When they were in class and heard their teacher talked in the target language, some of them looked puzzled as it was not the prescribed sentences that they used to hear in the online course. Hence, this resulted to the increase level of anxiety among students. However, it was gradually decreased by the end of the semester.    Furthermore, it is based on the analyses that students who are motivated and have positive attitudes towards the online courses were able to do well in the tests and participate actively in the online chat sessions with the Language Assistant (LA). Students with high level of motivation tended to learn the target language voluntarily compared to students who only cared for their grades.    The study also highlighted on the role of the teachers in influencing the students to learn better in the target language. Students indicated in the course’ evaluation form that the teacher served as the center of their satisfaction in the LOL course. Teacher’s instructions affected students’ way of learning through this online course as they depended on their teacher to complete an assignment or working with other course mates and LA. Since the LOL course limited the interaction between the teacher and students, the writer also suggests that teachers should employ various teaching strategies to ensure effective communication with the students takes place without depending too much to the students’ motivation to learn.         What is the interpretation? How are the findings interpreted? What is the conclusion?    LOL course offers flexibility to the students in terms of managing their own learning but not all students were able to take advantage of it.    Effective instruction in LOL course would affect students’ understanding and motivation to learn effectively.  Any directions for further research?    Ways in which technology-based language courses can be most effectively implemented    Study of motivation and motivational factors to establish effective online CALL What are the key references used for the study? Motivation, Attitudes, Online Course, Second Language Learning, Teacher’s Role   What is your overall impression of the articles? –   the way it was written, its style, did you read it with ease, was it easy to follow, what about signposting, any strengths, any weaknesses etc    The article was written clearly. It was easy to understand what the writer is trying to portray.    The article is also well-structured. What insights did you gain from the article? (what new thing you learnt, how you have gained, what deeper meanings did it have, did the research impress you or inspire you, why? etc. )
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