Big Travel Revision

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IB travel geography revision
  Definitions:  Leisure - Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time. A honeypot site is a location attracting a large number of tourists who, due to their numbers,  place pressure on the environment and local people. Recreation - A leisure-time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment. It includes individual pursuits, organized outings and events, and non-paid (non-professional) sports. Primary tourist resources - The pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation (that is, those not built specifically for the purpose), including climate, scenery, wildlife indigenous people, cultural and heritage sites. These are distinguished from secondary tourist/recreational resources, which include accommodation, catering, entertainment and shopping. Resort - A settlement where the primary function is tourism Sport - A physical activity involving a set of rules or customs. The activity may be competitive. Tourism - Travel away from home for at least one night for the purpose of leisure. Types: l Ecotourism  —  tourism focusing on the natural environment and local communities l Heritage tourism  —  tourism based on a historic legacy (landscape feature, historic building or event) as its major attraction l Sustainable tourism  —  tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people. Multiplier effect Random data Patterns in tourism: economic, environmental, social, political Tourism growth  –   5% and 10% in developing countries 1.1bln tourist arrivals in 2014 Butler’s tourism model  Costa del Sol Exploration  –   small fishing villages Involvement  –   1960s, small hotels, clean, warm, traditional Spanish culture, 1mln tourists Development  –   1970s, 3mln tourists, bigger hotels, improved roads, cheaper flights, restaurants opened Consolidation  –   1980s, better infrastructure, 7mln tourists, upgraded airports (Canary) Stagnation  –   environmental damage, overcrowding Decline  –   1990s Madrid trains bombing, new trends in tourism and boredom with sea sand, rise of Asia flights, need for heritage tourism Rejuvenation  –   low-cost airlines, city-breaks, cleaner, Short-term trends in tourism: terrorism (Bali bombing in 2002), destination change, Brexit, events, credit crunch, fluctuating prices Long-term trends: more tourists, Changes in location: more remote places, ecotourism and sustainable tourism growing, more travels to Asia, city-breaks,  Golf  –   participation and success Infrastructure, GDP, sex, natural, cultural barriers Growing GDP, Golf players in Europe are rising, development is also increasing: 3mln in 1985, 7mln in 2010 65% golf players are white men 10 countries own 79% of world’s facilities  Dominated by core countries  Necessary infrastructure (USA has most golf courses) US 18 000 golf courses, Africa 700 >5 hours rounds, so need leisure time >1500$/year Football  –   participation and success Traditional sport  –   English Premier League watch all over the world  National identity Role model: Premier League Good infrastructure eg in London Training, sponsorship, investment, government programmes, education Can be played everywhere, not like on special facilities Government investment (stadiums) and education: PE classes Population: the more people the more successful (San Marino at the bottom)  No Muslim women Sustainable tourism 5 flights/week to Easter Island Ecotourism growing 15%/year In Dominica ecotourists spend 18x more than normal Carrying capacity - The maximum number of visitors/participants that a site/event can satisfy at one time. It is customary to distinguish between environmental carrying capacity (the maximum number before the local environment becomes damaged) and perceptual carrying capacity (the maximum number before a specific group of visitors considers the level of impact, such as noise, to be excessive) Global Sustainable tourism criteria partnership: reducing harm to heritage and environment, maximize social and economic benefits to local people Renewable energy, recycling, using biodegradable and sustainable materials, public transport, quotas on carrying capacity, national parks, education, local culture, minimise economic leakage Negative impact of tourism 90% of coral reefs deteriorating due to tourism Tourism  –   5% of greenhouse gases emission Small countries get too dependent on tourism industry Problems caused by tourism:    Overcrowding     Congestion    Inflation    Environmental pressure    Loss of cultural value    Pressure on services    Pollution Sport The more developed GDP, the more medals. But not Jamaica and African due to high altitude so many medals Factors influencing growing tourism demand:    More disposable income    Changes in working week    Transportation    Credit cars    Travel agencies    Passports and visas    Last minute    Education OLYMPICS BEIJING 2008 Hosts of Olympics see the growth of medals: China 2004 64, 2008 100 China constructed national stadium  –   only 10% fulfilment of seats! and their Olympics costed 43bln, 4bln subway extensions, 1.5mln displaced residents Ecotourism: Case study  –   Cuc Phuong National Park Rising awareness  –   travelling by buses only Employment in services 500 ppl forced to relocate Minimising environmental damage: protecting 600 turtles, non-profit governing organisation WWF says that it is one of most conserved ecosystems Maximising economic benefit: contracts with travel agencies from Hanoi, training English-speaking guides, ticket charges reinvested to conservation Premier League 20 clubs, all from England, but 2 welsh Each team 38 matches Manchester United( biggest stadium, the highest income), Chelsea, Arsenal Watched in 202 countries by 0.5bln ppl Winners are the champions of England Revenue 3$bln/year  The only English level-one league (out of 8 in total) Rural tourism  –   Peak Districk National Park 2 nd  most visited Accessible by transport, working and busy 25% of local jobs, 22mln visitors/year Mountain Mam Tor, caves, Pervil Castle, village, physical activities Problems: path erosion, second houses causing inflation and taking from local people, seasonal  jobs only, depopulation, congestion, littering, honeypots: Castleton, Bakewell  –   need for redistribution, too little accommodation for peak days, too many people in main attractions and to little in smaller 2000: Sustainable tourism in peak district: education and conservation, Solutions: entrance fee, 2 nd  home tax, education and awareness, car ban, Urban tourism  –   Venice no roads, 118 islands, 60 000 residents, 50 000 tourists daily, 4x more than carrying capacity Solutions:    Low-cost housing    Coach authorisation    5 euro tax for a visitor    Subsidies for local businesses: post offices, doctors    Reducing events: expo    Drinking fountains to reduce plastic bottles    Police patrols 90% decline of population since 1930s Distribution of attractions London Olympic Games 2012
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