El Enganol y El Cuco

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Article on English in PR
  Thank you for using the University at Albany’s Interlibrary Loan Service NOTICE WARNING CONCERNING COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specific conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research. If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of fair use, that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law.   Questions? Call 442-3613 from 10:00 ~ 4:30 (weekdays) or Send email to libill@albany.edu  Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found athttp://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=rmli20 Download by:  [University of Arizona] Date:  31 August 2017, At: 14:36 Language and Intercultural Communication ISSN: 1470-8477 (Print) 1747-759X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rmli20 El engañol y el cuco: metaphors in the nexusbetween language and status in Puerto Rico Elaine Shenk To cite this article:  Elaine Shenk (2015) El engañol y el cuco: metaphors in the nexus betweenlanguage and status in Puerto Rico, Language and Intercultural Communication, 15:3, 324-340,DOI: 10.1080/14708477.2015.1015349 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2015.1015349 Published online: 10 Mar 2015.Submit your article to this journal Article views: 121View related articles View Crossmark data   El engañol   y  el cuco : metaphors in the nexus between languageand status in Puerto Rico Elaine Shenk *  Department of Modern and Classical Languages, Saint Joseph ’  s University, Philadelphia, PA, USA The year leading up to the 2012 plebiscite on Puerto Rico ’ s political status coincidedwith the proposal of a project to  ‘ guarantee ’  bilingualism through English instructionin the schools. The intimate nexus between the Island ’ s political status and issues of language was highlighted during that time not only in the news media on the Island but also in the US presidential campaign speeches during which candidates divulgedtheir perspectives. This paper analyzes metaphors on language in Puerto Rico,including, among others, those based on  el engañol   or   el cuco , particularly wherethese appeared in connection with the plebiscite on status, focusing on news articlesand opinion columns published between December 2011 and April 2013, from thetime the plebiscite was announced through the follow-up coverage several monthsafter it was held. The paper concludes that the debates on language as related to statusin Puerto Rico maintain some well-known metaphors, but that other, third-waymetaphorical expressions are also being used to clarify and give shape to thecontroversy.El año previo al plebiscito del 2012 sobre el status político de Puerto Rico coincidíacon la propuesta de un proyecto para  ‘ garantizar  ’  el bilingüismo por medio de laenseñanza en inglés en las escuelas. El nexo íntimo entre el status y la cuestión delidioma se recalcó no sólo en la prensa isleña sino también en los discursos de lascampañas presidenciales estadounidenses durante los cuales los candidatos divulgaronsus perspectivas respecto al asunto. Este trabajo analiza las metáforas publicadas en la prensa en cuanto al idioma en Puerto Rico, que incluyen, entre otras, las que se basanen  el engañol   o  el cuco , particularmente donde aparecieron en conexión con el plebiscito, con un enfoque en las noticias y opiniones publicadas entre diciembre de2011 y abril de 2013, desde el anuncio del plebiscito hasta la cobertura del tema unosmeses después de que se llevó a cabo el mismo. El trabajo concluye que la polémicase aferra a algunas metáforas ya conocidas, pero que se emplean también otrasexpresiones metafóricas con la intención de aclarar y dar forma al debate. Keywords:  Puerto Rico; language; metaphor; Spanish; English; status; politicaldiscourse Introduction There has long been an historic, intimate, and controversial link between Puerto Rico ’ s political status and the question of language (see, for example, Barreto, 2001a, 2001b; Centeno Añeses, 1999; Comisión de Educación, Ciencia y Cultura, 2001; Duany, 2002, 2005; DuBord, 2007; Negrón-Muntaner, 1997; Ortiz-López, 2000; Pousada, 1999; Ramírez González & Torres, 2000; Reyes Benítez, 2000; Rúa, 1992; Simounet-Geigel, *Email: eshenk@sju.edu  Language and Intercultural Communication,  2015Vol. 15, No. 3, 324  –  340, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2015.1015349 © 2015 Taylor & Francis    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A  r   i  z  o  n  a   ]  a   t   1   4  :   3   6   3   1   A  u  g  u  s   t   2   0   1   7  2004; Torres, 2007; Torres González, 2002a, 2002b, 2003; Vélez, 2000; Vidal-Ortiz, 2004; Zentella, 1999). Additionally, scholars have focused on the cultural exchange, including linguistic aspects, that occurs both in the diaspora outside the Island as well aswhen Puerto Ricans return to the Island from the USA and elsewhere (Barreto, 2000;Flores, 2009; Kerkhof, 2001; Torres, 2007; Zentella, 1990). Flores (2006, p. 119) points out that this cultural flow is not only unidirectional  ‘ from above ’  but also a ‘ transnationalism from below. ’  Thus in December 2011, when Puerto Rico ’ s then-Governor Luis Fortuño announced an upcoming plebiscite on political status for thefollowing November, it was perhaps not surprising, albeit problematic for many, that several months later he would also initiate a project for   ‘ Las Escuelas del Siglo21 ’ /  Schools of the 21st century  to ostensibly guarantee the bilingualism of all PuertoRican students within 10 years by way of their education in the English language.In addition to establishing English as the language of instruction for the sciences, math,and physical education, a highly controversial move given the historical conflicts over language of instruction on the Island in the first half of the twentieth century, Fortuño ’ s proposal also included English classes for parents. The Puerto Rico Teachers Associationrejected the proposal, not because the association was opposed to bilingual education, but  because the proposal specifically supported instruction in English  –   not bilingualinstruction  –   a move that appeared to revert to a 1997  ‘ Proyecto para formar unciudadano bilingüe ’ /   Project to form a bilingual citizenry  which had also causedsignificant controversy. The complexity of the question of language in the politicalhistory between the Island and the USA and the accompanying implications for the plebiscite were also highlighted during simultaneous presidential campaigns in the USA,during which candidates discussed their perspectives on the status of Spanish and Englishin Puerto Rico.The 2012 plebiscite posed two questions for voters: (1)  ‘ Do you agree that PuertoRico should continue to have its present form of territorial status? ’  and (2)  ‘ Regardless of your selection in the first question, please mark which of the following nonterritorialoptions would you prefer, ’  with three options: statehood, independence, or sovereign freeassociated state (Comisión Estatal de Elecciones, 2012). This formulation provokedfrustration for many Puerto Ricans, particularly those associated with the Popular Democratic Party (PPD). 1 Posing the second question assumed that voters had selected ‘ no ’  in response to the first; thus, those who had voted  ‘ yes ’  on the first question either had to leave the second unanswered or vote even though they did not opt for any of thethree options provided. Some voters chose to leave at least one of the questions blank, yet the results were counted independently of one another. Although the reported resultsinitially seemed to suggest that a majority of Puerto Ricans had opted for a status changeof some kind, for many Puerto Ricans the uncertainty underlying these issues did not yield an irrefutable mandate to move toward such a change in status.The intimate connection between any discussion of political status for the Island andlanguage officialization is also evidenced in the discussions that had been held previouslyin the US House of Representatives during debates on H.R. 2499 in 2010 (see Shenk,2013). This bill focused on authorizing a plebiscite on status, and the debate includedindications that language requirements could be imposed on Puerto Rico in the case of astatehood request (Delgado, 2012a). The current paper focuses on the discussions of language in the media, and specifically the appearance of both metaphorical expressionsand the underlying metaphors to which they gave voice, particularly where theseappeared in connection with the plebiscite during the year leading up to and immediatelyfollowing the vote.  Language and Intercultural Communication  325    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A  r   i  z  o  n  a   ]  a   t   1   4  :   3   6   3   1   A  u  g  u  s   t   2   0   1   7
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