French Tarot

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  Tarotology Tarotology  is the hypothetical basis for the reading of Tarot cards, a subset of cartomancy, which is the practice of using cards to gain insight into the past,present or future by posing a question to the cards. The reasoning behind this practice ranges from believing the result is guided by a spiritual force, to beliefthat the cards are instruments used to tap either into a collective unconsciousor into the subject's own creative, brainstorming subconscious.Tarot cards were srcinally used in games and are still used for that purpose in many parts of Europe. Tarotology is not considered a science; there is no scientific evidence that readings made from the cards can play a role in making objective predictions about future events. It is therefore a practice of pseudoscience. History Court de GébelinEtteillaMarie Anne LenormandÉliphas Lévi Use Order of the TrumpsPersonal use CriticismSee alsoReferencesExternal links The main article on Tarot gives full details of the history of Tarot cards as game-playing cards.One of the earliest reference to Tarot triumphs, and probably the first reference to Tarot as the devil's picture book, isgiven by a Dominican preacher in a fiery sermon against the evils of the devil's instrument. [1]  References to the Tarotas a social plague continue throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, but there are no indication that the cards wereused for anything but games anywhere other than in Bologna. [2]  As Dummett (1980: 96) notes, was only in the1780s, when the practice of fortune-telling with regular playing cards had been well established for at least twodecades, that anyone began to use the Tarot pack for cartomancy. The belief in the divinatory meaning of the cards is closely associated with a belief in their occult properties: acommonly held belief in the 18th century propagated by prominent Protestant clerics and freemasons. [2]:96  One ofthem was Court De Gébelin(see below).From its humble uptake as an instrument of prophecy in France, the Tarot went on to become a thing of hermeneutic,magical, mystical, [3]  semiotic, [4]  and even psychological properties. It was used by Romani people when tellingfortunes, [5]  as a Jungian psychological apparatus capable of tapping into “absolute knowledge in the unconscious,” [6] a tool for archetypal analysis, [7]  and even a tool for facilitating the Jungian process of Individuation. [8] Many involved in occult and divinatory practices attempt to trace the Tarot to ancient Egypt, divine hermetic wisdom, [9]  and the mysteries of Isis.Possibly the first of those was Antoine Court de Gébelin, a French clergyman, who wrote that after seeing a group of women playing cards he had the ideathat Tarot was not merely a game of cards but was in fact: of ancient Egyptian srcinof mystical cabbalistic importof deep divine significance ContentsHistory Antoine Court de Gébelin Court de Gébelin  De Gébelin published a dissertation on the srcins of the symbolism in the Tarot in volume VIII of work  Le Monde primitif  . He thought the Tarot representedancient Egyptian Theology, including Isis, Osiris and Typhon. For example, he thought the card he knew as the Papesse and known today as the HighPriestess represented Isis. [10]  He also related four Tarot cards to the four Christian Cardinal virtues: Temperance, Justice, Strength and Prudence. [11]  Herelates The Tower to a Greek fable about avarice. [12] Although the ancient Egyptian language had not yet been deciphered, de Gébelin asserted the name Tarot came from the Egyptian words Tar , path or road , and the word  Ro ,  Ros  or  Rog , meaning King or royal , and that the Tarot literally translated to the Royal Road of Life. [13]  Later Egyptologistsfound nothing in the Egyptian language to support de Gébelin's etymologies.Despite this lack of any evidence, the belief that the tarot cards are linked to the Egyptian Book of Thoth continues in modern urban legend to the presentday.The actual source of the occult Tarot can be traced to two articles in volume eight, one written by himself, and one written by M. le C. de M.***. [14]  Thesecond has been noted to have been even more influential than Gebelin's. [2]  The author takes De Gebelin's speculations even further, agreeing with himabout the mystical srcins of the Tarot in ancient Egypt, but making several additional, and influential, statements that continue to influence massunderstanding of the occult tarot even to this day. He: makes the first statement that the Tarot is, in fact, The Book of Thothmakes the first statement that the Tarot is associated with the Romani People (and that the Romani people were roaming Egyptians)makes the first association of Tarot with cartomancy The first to assign divinatory meanings to the Tarot cards were cartomancer Jean-Baptiste Alliette (also known as Etteilla) in 1783 and Mlle Marie-AnneAdelaide Lenormand(1776-1843). [15][16]  According to Dummett, Etteilla: [2] devised a method of tarot divination in 1783, wrote a cartomanic treatise of tarot as the Book of Thoth,created the first society for Tarot cartomancy, the Société littéraire des associés libres desinterprètes du livre de Thot.created the first corrected Tarot (supposedly fixing errors that resulted from misinterpretation and corruption through the mists ofantiquity), The Grand Ettielle deckcreated the first Egyptian tarot to be used exclusively for Tarot cartomancypublished, under the imprint of his society, the Dictionnaire synonimique du Livre de Thot, a book that systematically tabulated all thepossible meanings which each card could bear, when upright and reversed. (Dummett, 1980: pp. 110). Etteilla also: suggested that Tarot was repository of the wisdom of Hermes Trismegistus was a book of eternal medicine was an account of the creation of the worldargued that the first copy of the tarot was imprinted on leaves of gold Michael Dummett (1980) suggests that Etteilla was attempting to scoop Court De Gebelin as the author of the occult tarot. Etteilla in fact claims to havebeen involved with Tarot longer than Court De Gebelin. [2] Mlle Marie-Anne Adelaide Lenormand outshone even Ettiella and was the first cartomancer to people in high places, being the personal confidant ofEmpress Josephine, Napoleon and other notables. [2]  Lenormand used both regular playing cards, in particular the Piquet pack, as well as cards derived fromEtteilla's Egyptian root. She was so famous that a deck was published in her name, the Grand Jeu de Mlle Lenormand , two years after her death in 1843.The concept of the cards as a mystical key was extended by Éliphas Lévi (1810-1875). Lévi (whose given name was Alphonse-Louise Constance) waseducated in the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, was ordained as a deacon, but never became a priest. Dummett (1980, pp. 114) notes that it is from Levi's book  Dogme et rituel  that the whole of the modern occultist movement stems. Lévi wrote that an astral light is contained within all of reality, and according toDummett (1980, pp. 118), he claimed to be the first to have discovered intact and still unknown this key of all doctrines and all philosophies of the old world... without the Tarot , he tells us, the Magic of the ancients is a closed book.... Lévi rejected Court de Gébelin's claims about an Egyptian srcin of the deck symbols, going back instead to the Tarot de Marseille, calling it The Book of Hermes,  claiming it was antique, that it existed before Moses, and that it was in fact a universal key of erudition, philosophy, and magic that could unlockHermetic and Cabbalistic concepts. According to Lévi, An imprisoned person with no other book than the Tarot, if he knew how to use it, could in a few Etteilla Marie Anne LenormandÉliphas Lévi  years acquire universal knowledge, and would be able to speak on all subjects with unequaled learning and inexhaustible eloquence. [17] According to Dummett Lévis' notable contributions include: [2] Lévi was the first to suggest that the Magus (Bagatto) was to work with the four suits.Inspired by de Gébelin, Lévi associated the Hebrew alphabet with the Tarot trumps.Lévi linked the ten numbered cards in each suit to the ten sefiroth.Claimed the court cards represented stages of human life.Claimed the four suites represented the Tetragrammaton. Dummett (1980: 120) dismissed Lévi's contribution to magic as the product of an advanced state of intellectual deliquescent, but noted that Lévi made amajor contribution to the history of occult lore. Occultists, magicians, and magus's all the way down to the 21st century have cited Lévi as a defininginfluence. This trend began immediately when Jean-Baptiste Pitois(1811), writing under the name Paul Christian, wrote L'Homme rouge  (1863) and later Histoire de la magie, du monde surnaturel et de la fatalité à travers les temps et les peuples  (1870). Christian repeats and extends the mythology of thetarot and changes the names for the trumps and the suits (see table below for a list of Christian's modifications to the trumps). Batons (wands) becomeScepters, Swords become Blades, and Coins become Shekels. [18]  In 1888 Ély Star published  Mystères de l'horoscope  which mostly repeats Christian'smodifications. [19]  Its primary contribution was the introduction of the terms 'Major arcana' and 'Minor arcana,' and the numbering of the Crocodile (the Fool)XXII instead of 0.In 1887 the Marquis Stanislas de Guaitamet the amateur artist Oswald Wirth (1860-1943) and subsequently sponsored a production of Lévi's intended deck.Guided entirely by de Guaita Wirth designed the first neo-occultist cartomantic deck (and first cartomantic deck not derived from Ettielle's Egyptina deck).Known as the  Arcanes du Tarot kabbalistique  it consisted of only the twenty-two major arcana.Tarot is often used in conjunction with the study of the Hermetic Qabalah. [20]  In these decks all the cards are illustrated in accordance with Qabalisticprinciples, most being influenced by the  Rider-Waite  deck. Its images were drawn by artist Pamela Colman Smith, to the instructions of Christian mystic andoccultist Arthur Edward Waite and published in 1909.A difference from Marseilles style decks is that Waite-Smith use scenes with esoteric meanings on thesuit cards.Tarot cards have become extremely popular in Japan, where hundreds of new decks have been designed in recent years. [21] The following is a comparison of the order of the trumps up to and including the A.E. Waite deck. This table is based on Dummett (1980) and actualinspection of the relevant decks. Use Order of the Trumps  Tarot deMarseille [22] Court deGébelin [23][24] Etteilla's EgyptianTarot [25] Paul Christian'sEgyptian Tarot (divinatorymeaning inbold)OswaldWirthGoldenDawnA.E. WaiteBook ofThoth(Crowley) 1 - theBateleur(Mountebank)BateleurIdeal/Wisdomthe Magus / Will Magician1 - TheMagicianI - TheMagicianI - TheMagus2 - thePopessHigh PriestessEnlightenment/PassionGate of the(occult)Sanctuary / Knowledge Priestess2 - The HighPriestessII - The HighPriestessII - ThePriestess3 - theEmpressEmpressDiscussion/InstabilityIsis - Urania / Action Empress3 - TheEmpressIII - TheEmpressIII - TheEmpress4 - theEmperorEmperorRevelation/BehaviourCubic Stone / Realisation Emperor4 - TheEmperorIV - TheEmperorIV - TheEmperor5 - the PopeChiefHierophantTravel/Country PropertyMaster of theMysteries/Arcana/ OccultInspiration Hierophant5 - TheHierophantV - TheHierophantV - TheHierophant6 - Love orthe LoversMarriageSecrets/TruthsTwo Roads / Ordeal Lovers6 - TheLoversVI - TheLoversVI - TheLovers7 - theChariotOsirisTriumphantSupport/ProtectionChariot of Osiris / Victory Chariot7 - TheChariotVII - TheChariotVII - TheChariot8 - JusticeJusticeTenacity/ProgressThemis (Scalesand Blade) / Equilibrium Justice11 - JusticeXI - JusticeVIII -Adjustment9 - the HermitWise ManJustice/Law-Makerthe Veiled Lamp / Wisdom Hermit9 - TheHermitIX - TheHermitIX - TheHermit10 - Wheel ofFortuneWheel ofFortuneTemperance/Convictionsthe Sphinx / Fortune Fortune10 - TheWheel ofFortuneX - Wheel ofFortuneX - Fortune11 - FortitudeFortitudeStrength/PowertheMuzzled(tamed)Lion / Strength Strength8 - StrengthVIII -StrengthXI - Lust12 - theHanged ManPrudencePrudence/PopularityThe Sacrifice / Sacrifice HangedMan12 - TheHangedManXII - TheHangedManXII - TheHangedMan13 - DeathDeathMarriage/Love AffairThe SkeletonReaper / Transformation Death13 - DeathXIII - DeathXIII - Death14 -TemperanceTemperanceViolence/Weaknessthe Two Urns(the genius of thesun) / Initiative Temperance14 -TemperanceXIV -TemperanceXIV - Art15 - the DevilTyphonChagrins/IllnessTyphon / Fate Devil15 - TheDevilXV - TheDevilXV - TheDevil16 - theTowerthe Castle orPlutusOpinion/Arbitrationthe BeheadedTower (LightningStruck) / Ruin Tower16 - TheTowerXVI - TheTowerXVI - TheTower17 - the StarSirius or theDog StarDeath/IncapacityStar of the Magi / Hope Star17 - TheStarXVII - TheStarXVII - TheStar18 - the MoonMoonBetrayal/Falsehoodthe Twilight / Deception Moon18 - TheMoonXVIII - TheMoonXVIII - TheMoon19 - the SunSunPoverty/Prisonthe Blazing Light/ (earthly)Happiness Sun19 - TheSunXIX - TheSunXIX - TheSun20 -Judgmentthe CreationFortune/Augmentationthe Awakening ofthe Dead / Renewal Judgement20 -JudgementXX -JudgementXX - TheAeon21 - theWorldTimeLaw Suit/Legal Disputethe Crown of theMagi / Reward World21 - TheUniverseXXI - TheWorldXXI - TheUniverseLe Mat (Fool)FoolMadness/Bewilderment0 the Crocodile(between 20 and21) / Expiation Fool0 - The Fool0 - The Fool0 - TheFool
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