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  󰁒󰁥󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁥󰁮 377 島田裕己『日本の 10 大新宗教』幻冬舎  󰁓󰁨󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁤󰁡, H󰁩󰁲󰁯󰁭󰁩: 󰁎󰁩󰁨󰁯󰁮 󰁮󰁯 󰁪ū󰁤󰁡󰁩 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō  󰁛J󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁮’󰁳 󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁢󰁩󰁧 󰁮󰁥󰁷 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁝. 󰁔󰁯󰁫󰁹󰁯: G󰁥󰁮󰁴ō󰁳󰁨󰁡, 2007, 215 󰁰󰁡󰁧󰁥󰁳, 󰂥756. 󰁒󰁥󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 A󰁸󰁥󰁬 󰁋󰁬󰁥󰁩󰁮 A 󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁶e󰁹 b󰁹 󰁴he na󰁴i󰁯n’󰁳 󰁳ec󰁯nd bigge󰁳󰁴 ne󰁷󰁳󰁰a󰁰e󰁲, 󰁴he  A󰁳󰁡󰁨󰁩 S󰁨󰁩󰁭󰁢󰁵󰁮  (21Ma󰁲ch 2008: 8), 󰁲e󰁶ealed (󰁯nce again) 󰁴ha󰁴 󰁴he Ja󰁰ane󰁳e di󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵󰁳󰁴 󰁲eligi󰁯n.On a 󰁳󰁵󰁰e󰁲ficial le󰁶el 󰁴hi󰁳 ma󰁹 󰁳eem 󰁳󰁴󰁲ange a󰁳 man󰁹 Ja󰁰ane󰁳e c󰁯󰁵n󰁴󰁴hem󰁳el󰁶e󰁳 a󰁳 b󰁯󰁴h B󰁵ddhi󰁳󰁴 and Shin󰁴󰁯i󰁳󰁴, and man󰁹 e󰁶en󰁴󰁳 in 󰁴he 󰁹ea󰁲’󰁳calenda󰁲 a󰁲e ba󰁳ed 󰁯n 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁴󰁲adi󰁴i󰁯n. In 󰁴he 󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁶e󰁹 󰁰󰁵bli󰁳hed b󰁹  A󰁳󰁡󰁨󰁩S󰁨󰁩󰁭󰁢󰁵󰁮  , h󰁯󰁷e󰁶e󰁲, 󰁴he 󰁴e󰁲m ‘󰁲eligi󰁯n’ ( 󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō ) d󰁯e󰁳 n󰁯󰁴 󰁲efe󰁲 󰁴󰁯 Ja󰁰ane󰁳emaj󰁯󰁲 belief󰁳 in gene󰁲al, b󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 kn󰁯󰁷n a󰁳 ‘ne󰁷 󰁲e-ligi󰁯n󰁳’ ( 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō ). The 󰁴e󰁲m ‘ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n’ d󰁯e󰁳 n󰁯󰁴 in 󰁴he fi󰁲󰁳󰁴 󰁰lace im󰁰l󰁹 a ne󰁷 󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁥󰁤 . I󰁴󰁲a󰁴he󰁲 󰁲efe󰁲󰁳 󰁴󰁯 ne󰁷 󰁯󰁲󰁧󰁡󰁮󰁩󰁺󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳  , 󰁷hich in m󰁯󰁳󰁴 ca󰁳e󰁳 came in󰁴󰁯 being in󰁴he nine󰁴een󰁴h 󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁷en󰁴ie󰁴h cen󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁹 a󰁳 a 󰁲e󰁳󰁵l󰁴 󰁯f a 󰁳󰁰li󰁴 f󰁲󰁯m 󰁴he B󰁵ddhi󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲 Shin󰁴󰁯 main󰁳󰁴󰁲eam. The󰁳e ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁴eaching󰁳 and 󰁳󰁯cial ne󰁴󰁷󰁯󰁲k󰁳󰁷e󰁲e a󰁴󰁴󰁲ac󰁴i󰁶e 󰁴󰁯 man󰁹 Ja󰁰ane󰁳e 󰁷h󰁯, e󰁳󰁰eciall󰁹 d󰁵󰁲ing 󰁴he Bak󰁵ma󰁴󰁳󰁵and Meiji 󰁰e󰁲i󰁯d󰁳, and 󰁴hen again af󰁴e󰁲 󰁴he Sec󰁯nd W󰁯󰁲ld Wa󰁲, 󰁷e󰁲e neg-a󰁴i󰁶el󰁹 affec󰁴ed b󰁹 h󰁵ge ec󰁯n󰁯mic, 󰁰󰁯li󰁴ical and 󰁳󰁯cial change󰁳. Un󰁴il 󰁴he1970󰁳, 󰁴he󰁳e 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 󰁷e󰁲e 󰁲efe󰁲󰁲ed 󰁴󰁯 a󰁳 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁫ō 󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō  [ne󰁷l󰁹 󰁲i󰁳ing󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳], a c󰁯mm󰁯nl󰁹 󰁵󰁳ed 󰁴e󰁲m 󰁴ha󰁴 clea󰁲l󰁹 ca󰁲󰁲ied nega󰁴i󰁶e c󰁯nn󰁯󰁴a-󰁴i󰁯n󰁳. I󰁴 de󰁳c󰁲ibed g󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁰󰁳 󰁳󰁵ch a󰁳 Sōka Gakkai and Ri󰁳󰁳hō Kō󰁳eikai, 󰁷hichd󰁵󰁲ing 󰁴he e󰁲a 󰁯f high ec󰁯n󰁯mic g󰁲󰁯󰁷󰁴h in 󰁴he 1950󰁳 and 1960󰁳 had in-c󰁲ea󰁳ed 󰁴hei󰁲 membe󰁲󰁳hi󰁰 en󰁯󰁲m󰁯󰁵󰁳l󰁹, a󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁳ing 󰁴he 󰁳󰁵󰁳󰁰ici󰁯n 󰁯f e󰁳󰁴ab-li󰁳hed 󰁲eligi󰁯n and man󰁹 n󰁯n-membe󰁲󰁳. In󰁴󰁲󰁯d󰁵ced b󰁹 󰁳ch󰁯la󰁲󰁳 󰁯f 󰁲eli-gi󰁯n, 󰁴he m󰁯󰁲e ne󰁵󰁴󰁲al 󰁴e󰁲m 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō  󰁴hen 󰁳l󰁯󰁷l󰁹 f󰁯󰁵nd i󰁴󰁳 󰁷a󰁹 in󰁴󰁯e󰁶e󰁲󰁹da󰁹 󰁳󰁰eech and n󰁯󰁷ada󰁹󰁳 i󰁳 󰁵󰁳ed in 󰁰a󰁲allel 󰁴󰁯 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁫ō 󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō . Acc󰁯󰁲ding 󰁴󰁯 󰁴he S󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō 󰁪󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁮  [Enc󰁹cl󰁯󰁰edia 󰁯f ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳] edi󰁴-ed b󰁹 In󰁯󰁵e 󰁥󰁴 󰁡󰁬.  (1994) ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 300 󰁯f 󰁴he󰁳e 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 can be f󰁯󰁵nd in Ja󰁰an. The S󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō 󰁪󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁮  edi󰁴ed b󰁹 Ma󰁴󰁳󰁵n󰁯 (1984) name󰁳 ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 200ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳. Well-kn󰁯󰁷n 󰁯ne󰁳 󲀓 in name a󰁴 lea󰁳󰁴 󲀓 a󰁲e Sōka Gakkai,Ri󰁳󰁳hō Kō󰁳eikai and Ten󰁲ik󰁹ō. A󰁵m Shin󰁲ik󰁹ō, 󰁷h󰁯󰁳e fana󰁴ic󰁳 killed󰁴󰁷el󰁶e 󰁰e󰁯󰁰le and inj󰁵󰁲ed 󰁯󰁶e󰁲 5,000 b󰁹 󰁲elea󰁳ing 󰁳a󰁲in ga󰁳 in󰁴󰁯 󰁴he T󰁯k󰁹󰁯󰁳󰁵b󰁷a󰁹 󰁳󰁹󰁳󰁴em in 1995, al󰁳󰁯 bel󰁯ng 󰁴󰁯 󰁴he g󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁰 󰁯f ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳. B󰁵󰁴 i󰁴 did n󰁯󰁴 󰁴ake 󰁳ec󰁴󰁳 like A󰁵m and i󰁴󰁳 c󰁲iminal ac󰁴i󰁶i󰁴ie󰁳 󰁴󰁯 make ac󰁯n󰁳ide󰁲able 󰁰a󰁲󰁴 󰁯f Ja󰁰ane󰁳e 󰁳󰁯cie󰁴󰁹 󰁳󰁵󰁳󰁰ici󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁯f 󰁷ha󰁴 󰁴he󰁳e 󲀜ne󰁷 󰁲eli-gi󰁯n󰁳󲀝 󰁷e󰁲e all ab󰁯󰁵󰁴. Re󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁳 ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 h󰁯󰁷 membe󰁲󰁳 a󰁲e 󰁴󰁲ea󰁴ed 󰁯nce 󰁴he󰁹  󰁒󰁥󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁥󰁮 378ha󰁶e en󰁴e󰁲ed 󰁴he 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 can 󰁳󰁴ill be f󰁯󰁵nd 󰁲eg󰁵la󰁲l󰁹 in 󰁳󰁯me 󰁰a󰁲󰁴 󰁯f󰁴he Ja󰁰ane󰁳e ma󰁳󰁳 media 󲀓 󰁲e󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁳 in 󰁷hich 󰁴he 󰁷󰁯󰁲d󰁳 󲀜b󰁲ain󰁷a󰁳hing󲀝( 󰁳󰁥󰁮󰁮ō ) and 󲀜mind c󰁯n󰁴󰁲󰁯l󲀝 ( 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁯 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁯󰁲ō󰁲󰁵 ) a󰁲e 󰁲a󰁲el󰁹 mi󰁳󰁳ing. O󰁰enand ac󰁴i󰁶e a󰁴󰁴em󰁰󰁴󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁷in ne󰁷 membe󰁲󰁳 ha󰁶e al󰁷a󰁹󰁳 󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁯d in 󰁳󰁴a󰁲k c󰁯n-󰁴󰁲a󰁳󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁴he 󰁲e󰁳󰁴󰁲ic󰁴i󰁶e inf󰁯󰁲ma󰁴i󰁯n 󰁰󰁯licie󰁳 󰁯f 󰁴he󰁳e ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳 ab󰁯󰁵󰁴h󰁯󰁷 󰁴he󰁹 󰁷󰁯󰁲k in󰁴e󰁲nall󰁹. I󰁴 󰁳eem󰁳 alm󰁯󰁳󰁴 like a la󰁷 󰁯f na󰁴󰁵󰁲e 󰁴ha󰁴 󰁴hem󰁯󰁲e 󰁳ec󰁲e󰁴i󰁶el󰁹 󰁴he󰁳e 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 beha󰁶ed, 󰁴he m󰁯󰁲e 󰁷ildl󰁹 󰁲󰁵m󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳󰁳󰁰󰁲ead. The e󰁸󰁴en󰁴 󰁯f 󰁴hei󰁲 󰁳󰁯cial and 󰁰󰁯li󰁴ical infl󰁵ence 󰁲emain󰁳 󰁯󰁰en 󰁴󰁯󰁳󰁰ec󰁵la󰁴i󰁯n, and 󰁴he 󰁷eal󰁴h 󰁴ha󰁴 man󰁹 󰁯f 󰁴he b󰁵ilding󰁳 󰁯󰁷ned b󰁹 󰁴he󰁳ene󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳 󰁰󰁯in󰁴 󰁴󰁯 ha󰁳 󰁲e󰁰ea󰁴edl󰁹 󰁲ai󰁳ed 󰁴he 󰁱󰁵e󰁳󰁴i󰁯n 󰁯f 󰁷he󰁲e 󰁴hem󰁯ne󰁹 ac󰁴󰁵all󰁹 c󰁯me󰁳 f󰁲󰁯m. I󰁴 i󰁳 n󰁯 󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁰󰁲i󰁳e 󰁴ha󰁴 󰁴he󰁲e a󰁲e man󰁹 󰁰󰁵blica󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 in Ja󰁰an 󲀓 󲀜Sōka Gak-kai a󰁳 c󰁵l󰁴 = Ikeda Dai󰁳ak󰁵󲀝 b󰁹 F󰁵󰁲󰁵ka󰁷a (2000) and 󲀜Ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳 andh󰁵ge a󰁲chi󰁴ec󰁴󰁵󰁲e󲀝 b󰁹 Iga󰁲a󰁳hi (2007), 󰁴󰁯 name j󰁵󰁳󰁴 󰁴󰁷󰁯 󲀓 󰁴ha󰁴 c󰁲i󰁴ici󰁺e ne󰁷󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳 in gene󰁲al and 󰁴he B󰁵ddhi󰁳󰁴 la󰁹 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n Sōka Gakkai 󲀓 󰁴hela󰁲ge󰁳󰁴 am󰁯ng 󰁴hem 󲀓 in 󰁰a󰁲󰁴ic󰁵la󰁲. The ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳 󰁴hem󰁳el󰁶e󰁳, 󰁯n 󰁴he󰁯󰁴he󰁲 hand, 󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁷in 󰁯󰁶e󰁲 󰁰󰁵blic 󰁯󰁰ini󰁯n 󰁴h󰁲󰁯󰁵gh 󰁴hei󰁲 󰁯󰁷n 󰁰󰁵blica-󰁴i󰁯n󰁳, 󰁳󰁯me 󰁯f 󰁷hich a󰁲e ma󰁲ked clea󰁲l󰁹 a󰁳 ha󰁶ing been 󰁷󰁲i󰁴󰁴en and 󰁰󰁵b-li󰁳hed b󰁹 󰁴hem, a󰁳 f󰁯󰁲 in󰁳󰁴ance 󲀜Sōka Gakkai a󰁳 a ci󰁴i󰁺en󰁳’ m󰁯󰁶emen󰁴󲀝 b󰁹Okani󰁷a and N󰁯󰁺aki (2002), 󰁷hile 󰁯󰁴he󰁲󰁳 a󰁲e ha󰁲dl󰁹 󰁲ec󰁯gni󰁺able a󰁳 󰁳󰁵ch,a󰁳 f󰁯󰁲 in󰁳󰁴ance Ta󰁳hi󰁲󰁯’󰁳 󲀜I 󰁷an󰁴 Ja󰁰ane󰁳e 󰁰e󰁯󰁰le 󰁴󰁯 kn󰁯󰁷 󰁴hi󰁳! A c󰁯m󰁰le󰁴eg󰁵ide 󰁴󰁯 ba󰁳ic B󰁵ddhi󰁳󰁴 kn󰁯󰁷ledge and c󰁯mm󰁯n 󰁳en󰁳e󲀝 (2008) andTaka󰁳e’󰁳 󲀜P󰁯li󰁴ic󰁳 and 󰁲eligi󰁯n in Ja󰁰an󲀝 (1995). In be󰁴󰁷een 󰁴he󰁳e 󰁴󰁷󰁯 e󰁸󰁴󰁲eme󰁳 󰁴he󰁲e a󰁲e fe󰁷 c󰁲i󰁴ical 󰁰󰁵blica󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 󰁰󰁵b-li󰁳hed in Ja󰁰ane󰁳e, 󰁳a󰁶e 󰁳󰁯me 󰁲a󰁴he󰁲 󰁳󰁴e󰁲ile 󰁷󰁯󰁲k󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴 󰁴󰁲󰁹 ha󰁲d n󰁯󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁯f-fend an󰁹 󰁲eligi󰁯n in󰁶󰁯l󰁶ed, and 󰁴h󰁵󰁳 gi󰁶e a󰁴󰁴en󰁴i󰁶e 󰁲eade󰁲󰁳 an idea 󰁯f h󰁯󰁷delica󰁴e 󰁴he i󰁳󰁳󰁵e i󰁳. E󰁸ce󰁰󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁴he 󰁲󰁵le, h󰁯󰁷e󰁶e󰁲, a󰁲e 󰁷󰁯󰁲k󰁳 b󰁹 Shima-da Hi󰁲󰁯mi, a 󰁳ch󰁯la󰁲 󰁯f 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁳󰁴󰁵die󰁳 a󰁴 T󰁯k󰁹󰁯 Uni󰁶e󰁲󰁳i󰁴󰁹. Hi󰁳 ca󰁲ee󰁲󰁳󰁵ffe󰁲ed a 󰁳e󰁶e󰁲e 󰁳e󰁴back in 󰁴he mid 1990󰁳 󰁷hen hi󰁳 󰁵ni󰁶e󰁲󰁳i󰁴󰁹 f󰁯󰁲ced him󰁴󰁯 lea󰁶e f󰁯ll󰁯󰁷ing acc󰁵󰁳a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 linking him 󰁷i󰁴h A󰁵m Shin󰁲ik󰁹ō. E󰁶en󰁴h󰁯󰁵gh Shimada 󰁷󰁯n a la󰁷󰁳󰁵i󰁴 again󰁳󰁴 󰁴he 󰁰󰁯󰁰󰁵la󰁲 󰁰󰁲e󰁳󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴 c󰁯nd󰁵c󰁴edan 󰁯bn󰁯󰁸i󰁯󰁵󰁳 cam󰁰aign in 󰁷hich 󰁴he󰁹 had 󰁳󰁰󰁲ead 󰁲󰁵m󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳 ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 him, hehad 󰁴󰁯 find hi󰁳 󰁷a󰁹 a󰁳 a 󰁳ch󰁯la󰁲 󰁯f 󰁲eligi󰁯n 󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁳ide 󰁯f in󰁳󰁴i󰁴󰁵󰁴i󰁯nali󰁺edacademia. I󰁴 i󰁳 󰁯nl󰁹 fai󰁲 󰁴󰁯 kee󰁰 󰁴hi󰁳 in mind 󰁷hen j󰁵dging 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k 󰁵nde󰁲󰁲e󰁶ie󰁷 he󰁲e. Unlike academic󰁳 in 󰁲eg󰁵la󰁲 em󰁰l󰁯󰁹men󰁴, Shimada need󰁳 󰁴󰁯󰁳ell b󰁯󰁯k󰁳. Tha󰁴 󰁰󰁲󰁯babl󰁹 i󰁳 󰁯ne 󰁲ea󰁳󰁯n f󰁯󰁲 󰁴he 󰁳hee󰁲 n󰁵mbe󰁲 󰁯f 󰁴i󰁴le󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴 Shimadaha󰁳 󰁰󰁵󰁴 󰁯󰁵󰁴 in 󰁴he la󰁳󰁴 󰁴h󰁲ee 󰁹ea󰁲󰁳 al󰁯ne. Be󰁳ide󰁳 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k 󰁲e󰁶ie󰁷ed in 󰁴hi󰁳a󰁲󰁴icle, Shimada ha󰁳 󰁳ince 2006 al󰁳󰁯 󰁰󰁵bli󰁳hed 󰁯󰁲 󰁲e-󰁰󰁵bli󰁳hed in 󰁰a󰁰e󰁲- back 󰁴he f󰁯ll󰁯󰁷ing 󰁴i󰁴le󰁳 in Ja󰁰ane󰁳e: 󲀜Religi󰁯n a󰁳 b󰁵bble [ec󰁯n󰁯m󰁹]󲀝 inMa󰁲ch 2006 (a), 󲀜A󰁵m and 9.11󲀝 a󰁳 󰁷ell a󰁳 󲀜Kōmei󰁴ō 󰁶󰁳. Sōka Gakkai󲀝 in J󰁵ne 2006 (b, c), 󲀜The 󰁴󰁲󰁵e 󰁰󰁯󰁷e󰁲 󰁯f Sōka Gakkai󲀝 in A󰁵g󰁵󰁳󰁴 2006 (d),  󰁒󰁥󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁥󰁮 379󲀜C󰁲i󰁴ici󰁳m 󰁯f Naka󰁺a󰁷a Shin’ichi, 󰁯󰁲 ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁴e󰁲󰁲󰁯󰁲i󰁳m󲀝 in A󰁰󰁲il2007, and 󲀜Th󰁲ee kind󰁳 󰁯f Ja󰁰ane󰁳e 󰁴eaching󰁳󲀝 in A󰁰󰁲il 2008. Sch󰁯la󰁲󰁳 󰁵󰁳󰁵all󰁹 󰁰a󰁹 a ce󰁲󰁴ain 󰁰󰁲ice f󰁯󰁲 󰁳󰁵ch a high 󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁰󰁵󰁴, and indeedm󰁯󰁳󰁴 󰁯f 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k󰁳 men󰁴i󰁯ned ab󰁯󰁶e can ha󰁲dl󰁹 be c󰁯󰁵n󰁴ed a󰁳 󰁳ch󰁯la󰁲l󰁹󰁷󰁯󰁲k in 󰁴he academic 󰁳en󰁳e 󰁯f 󰁴he 󰁴e󰁲m. Shimada’󰁳 N󰁩󰁨󰁯󰁮 󰁮󰁯 󰁪ū󰁤󰁡󰁩 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō [Ja󰁰an’󰁳 󰁴en big ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳], 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k 󰁵nde󰁲 󰁲e󰁶ie󰁷 he󰁲e, f󰁯󰁲 e󰁸am󰁰le,c󰁯me󰁳 󰁷i󰁴h󰁯󰁵󰁴 an󰁹 clea󰁲 a󰁴󰁴󰁲ib󰁵󰁴i󰁯n 󰁯f 󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁲ce󰁳. The li󰁳󰁴 a󰁴 󰁴he end 󰁯f 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k c󰁯n󰁴ain󰁳 37 󰁴i󰁴le󰁳, fi󰁶e 󰁯f 󰁷hich a󰁲e b󰁹 Shimada him󰁳elf, 󰁷hile man󰁹󰁯󰁴he󰁲󰁳 a󰁲e 󰁯nl󰁹 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 enc󰁹cl󰁯󰁰edia󰁳. N󰁯󰁷he󰁲e in 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k d󰁯e󰁳 he men-󰁴i󰁯n in󰁴e󰁲󰁶ie󰁷󰁳 󰁯󰁲 an󰁹 󰁯󰁴he󰁲 addi󰁴i󰁯nal 󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁲ce ma󰁴e󰁲ial, and a󰁳 a c󰁯n󰁳e-󰁱󰁵ence 󰁴he󰁲e i󰁳 ha󰁲dl󰁹 an󰁹󰁴hing ne󰁷 󰁴󰁯 be f󰁯󰁵nd 󰁯n 󰁴he󰁳e 215 󰁰age󰁳. In 󰁴he e󰁰il󰁯g󰁵e 󰁴󰁯 󰁴hi󰁳 b󰁯󰁯k, Shimada 󰁳󰁴a󰁴e󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴 he had nei󰁴he󰁲 󰁰e󰁲fec󰁴c󰁲i󰁴e󰁲ia f󰁯󰁲 ch󰁯󰁯󰁳ing 󰁴he 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳, n󰁯󰁲 a 󰁷idel󰁹 acce󰁰󰁴ed defini󰁴i󰁯n 󰁯f󰁷ha󰁴 c󰁯n󰁳󰁴i󰁴󰁵󰁴e󰁳 a 󲀜ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󲀝 (󰁰. 205). I󰁴 󰁴󰁯󰁯k him half a 󰁹ea󰁲 󰁴󰁯 c󰁯m-󰁰le󰁴e 󰁴he final li󰁳󰁴 󰁯f 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 and he admi󰁴󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴 ne󰁸󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁴he 󰁯ne󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴made i󰁴 in󰁴󰁯 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k, he c󰁯󰁵ld ha󰁶e al󰁳󰁯 incl󰁵ded K󰁯nkōk󰁹ō, Zen󰁲ink󰁹ōand Ag󰁯n󰁳hū, b󰁵󰁴 a󰁳 he had 󰁴󰁯 󰁳e󰁴󰁴le f󰁯󰁲 󰁴en, 󰁴he󰁹 󰁷e󰁲e lef󰁴 󰁯󰁵󰁴 (󰁰󰁰. 203󲀓204).Of c󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳e, Ten󰁲ik󰁹ō (c󰁯󰁶e󰁲ed 󰁯n 󰁰age󰁳 29 󰁴󰁯 49), Ri󰁳󰁳hō Kō󰁳eikai (󰁰age󰁳 103󰁴󰁯 120) and Sōka Gakkai (󰁰age󰁳 121 󰁴󰁯 143) a󰁲e 󰁯b󰁶i󰁯󰁵󰁳 ch󰁯ice󰁳 beca󰁵󰁳e 󰁯f󰁴hei󰁲 h󰁵ge membe󰁲󰁳hi󰁰 and a󰁰󰁰a󰁲en󰁴 financial 󰁲e󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁲ce󰁳. Ōm󰁯󰁴󰁯 (󰁰age󰁳 50󰁴󰁯 67), 󰁯n 󰁴he 󰁯󰁴he󰁲 hand, 󲀓 󰁯󰁲 Kōdō Ōm󰁯󰁴󰁯 a󰁳 i󰁴 󰁷a󰁳 called bef󰁯󰁲e 󰁴he 󰁷a󰁲 󲀓󲀜enj󰁯󰁹󰁳󲀝 a󰁳 Shimada 󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁳 i󰁴 (󰁰. 50) 󰁴he m󰁯󰁳󰁴 fa󰁶󰁯󰁵󰁲able 󰁲e󰁰󰁵󰁴a󰁴i󰁯n 󰁯f all ne󰁷󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳, mainl󰁹 beca󰁵󰁳e i󰁴 f󰁯󰁵gh󰁴 󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁲e󰁳󰁳i󰁯n and inj󰁵󰁳󰁴ice b󰁹 󰁴he a󰁵󰁴h󰁯󰁲-i󰁴ie󰁳 d󰁵󰁲ing b󰁯󰁴h 󰁴he Tai󰁳hō (1912󲀓1926) and 󰁴he Shō󰁷a e󰁲a (1926󲀓1989). S󰁯me 󰁷a󰁹 in󰁴󰁯 󰁴he b󰁯󰁯k Shimada begin󰁳 hi󰁳 di󰁳c󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳e 󰁯n Seichō n󰁯 Ie(󰁰. 68), an 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n 󰁴ha󰁴 am󰁯ng 󰁯󰁴he󰁲 󰁴hing󰁳 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁰aga󰁴e󰁳 󰁳󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁭  ( 󰁨󰁩-󰁤󰁯󰁫󰁥󰁩 󰁳󰁨󰁵󰁧󰁩 ). Th󰁵󰁳 he 󰁴󰁯󰁵che󰁳 󰁵󰁰󰁯n an󰁯󰁴he󰁲 󰁰󰁲󰁯blem 󰁴ha󰁴 cann󰁯󰁴 be ig-n󰁯󰁲ed 󰁷hen dealing 󰁷i󰁴h ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳: namel󰁹, 󰁴ha󰁴 i󰁴 i󰁳 󰁳eemingl󰁹 im-󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁳ible 󰁴󰁯 kn󰁯󰁷 f󰁲󰁯m 󰁴he 󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁳ide h󰁯󰁷 man󰁹 󰁴󰁲󰁵e membe󰁲󰁳 bel󰁯ng 󰁴󰁯 an󰁹gi󰁶en 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n. The 󰁲e󰁳󰁰󰁯n󰁳ible de󰁰a󰁲󰁴men󰁴 󰁷i󰁴hin 󰁴he Mini󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁹 󰁯fEd󰁵ca󰁴i󰁯n, C󰁵l󰁴󰁵󰁲e, S󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁳, Science and Techn󰁯l󰁯g󰁹 (M󰁯nb󰁵 Kagak󰁵-󰁳hō)󰁯nl󰁹 󰁰󰁵bli󰁳he󰁳 󰁴he fig󰁵󰁲e󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴 󰁴he󰁳e 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 󰁴hem󰁳el󰁶e󰁳 󰁲e󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴. In󰁴hi󰁳 󰁲ega󰁲d, Seichō n󰁯 Ie i󰁳 󰁲ema󰁲kable: 󰁴he 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n c󰁯󰁲󰁲ec󰁴ed i󰁴󰁳 󰁯ffi-cial membe󰁲󰁳hi󰁰 fig󰁵󰁲e in 󰁴he 1980󰁳 f󰁲󰁯m an 󰁵nbelie󰁶abl󰁹 high n󰁵mbe󰁲 󰁯f󰁴h󰁲ee milli󰁯n 󰁴󰁯 800,000. Thi󰁳 n󰁵mbe󰁲, h󰁯󰁷e󰁶e󰁲, 󰁯nl󰁹 󰁲efe󰁲󰁳 󰁴󰁯 Ja󰁰ane󰁳emembe󰁲󰁳. If 󰁴he 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n’󰁳 membe󰁲󰁳hi󰁰 fig󰁵󰁲e󰁳 f󰁯󰁲 󰁴he 󰁲e󰁳󰁴 󰁯f 󰁴he󰁷󰁯󰁲ld a󰁲e c󰁯󰁲󰁲ec󰁴, Seichō n󰁯 Ie ha󰁳 m󰁯󰁲e membe󰁲󰁳 󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁳ide 󰁯f Ja󰁰an 󰁴han󰁷i󰁴hin. B󰁵󰁴 he󰁲e again, Shimada ha󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁵󰁳e 󰁴he 󰁷󰁯󰁲ding 󲀜i󰁴 i󰁳 󰁳aid󲀝 ( 󰁴󰁯󰁩󰁷󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁲󰁵 ), 󰁲eminding 󰁴he 󰁲eade󰁲 󰁴ha󰁴 󲀓 in c󰁯mm󰁯n 󰁷i󰁴h man󰁹 󰁯󰁴he󰁲 󰁴hing󰁳di󰁳c󰁵󰁳󰁳ed in 󰁴hi󰁳 b󰁯󰁯k 󲀓 󰁴he 󰁲eali󰁴󰁹 ma󰁹 be 󰁱󰁵i󰁴e diffe󰁲en󰁴. Shimada al󰁳󰁯 󰁷󰁲i󰁴e󰁳 ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁴he dance󰁲󰁳 󰁯f Ten󰁳hō Kō󰁴aijin Gūk󰁹ō (c󰁯󰁶-e󰁲ed 󰁯n 󰁰age󰁳 86 󰁴󰁯 102), 󰁴he 󰁷󰁯󰁲ld 󰁳a󰁶i󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳 󰁯f Sekai K󰁹ū󰁳eik󰁹ō (󰁰age󰁳 144  󰁒󰁥󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁥󰁮 380󰁴󰁯 158), Pe󰁲fec󰁴 Libe󰁲󰁴󰁹 (PL) K󰁹ōdan (󰁰age󰁳 159 󰁴󰁯 171), Shinn󰁹󰁯-en (󰁰age󰁳172 󰁴󰁯 189) and GLA (󰁰age󰁳 190 󰁴󰁯 202). Al󰁴h󰁯󰁵gh 󰁴he 󰁰age󰁳 dedica󰁴ed 󰁴󰁯each 󰁯f 󰁴he 󰁴en 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 a󰁲e n󰁯󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵c󰁴󰁵󰁲ed acc󰁯󰁲ding 󰁴󰁯 󰁴he 󰁳ame 󰁰a󰁴-󰁴e󰁲n, 󰁴he󰁹 a󰁴 lea󰁳󰁴 al󰁷a󰁹󰁳 c󰁯󰁶e󰁲 󰁴he gene󰁳i󰁳 󰁯f 󰁴he 󲀜󰁲eligi󰁯n󲀝 and 󰁯f󰁴en fea-󰁴󰁵󰁲e 󰁳󰁯me anecd󰁯󰁴al 󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹 󰁯󰁲 a 󰁰e󰁲󰁳󰁯nal acc󰁯󰁵n󰁴 ba󰁳ed 󰁯n e󰁸󰁰e󰁲ience 󰁷i󰁴h-in an 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n b󰁹 a membe󰁲. The󰁳e 󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲ie󰁳 a󰁲e 󰁰iece󰁳 󰁯f a bigge󰁲 󰁰ic-󰁴󰁵󰁲e 󰁴ha󰁴 󰁳h󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁴he 󰁰󰁯in󰁴󰁳 󰁯f c󰁯n󰁴ac󰁴 be󰁴󰁷een 󰁴he dail󰁹 life 󰁯f Ja󰁰ane󰁳e󰁳󰁯cie󰁴󰁹 and 󰁴he󰁳e ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳. The 󰁲eade󰁲 lea󰁲n󰁳, f󰁯󰁲 e󰁸am󰁰le, 󰁯f 󰁴he a󰁵-󰁴h󰁯󰁲’󰁳 fi󰁲󰁳󰁴 󰁶i󰁳i󰁴 󰁴󰁯 Ten󰁲i Ci󰁴󰁹 in Na󰁲a P󰁲efec󰁴󰁵󰁲e d󰁵󰁲ing 󰁴he G󰁯lden Weekh󰁯lida󰁹 󰁳ea󰁳󰁯n 󰁯f 1974 and h󰁯󰁷 󰁴he h󰁵ge a󰁲chi󰁴ec󰁴󰁵󰁲e and b󰁵ilding󰁳 e󰁲ec󰁴-ed b󰁹 Ten󰁲ik󰁹ō d󰁯mina󰁴e 󰁴he ci󰁴󰁹. A󰁴 an󰁯󰁴he󰁲 󰁰󰁯in󰁴, Shimada 󰁲emind󰁳 hi󰁳󰁲eade󰁲󰁳 󰁯f 󰁴he im󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴ance 󰁴ha󰁴 ba󰁳eball ha󰁳 f󰁯󰁲 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳, e󰁳-󰁰eciall󰁹 󰁷hen 󰁴he󰁲e i󰁳 a ma󰁴ch be󰁴󰁷een 󰁴eam󰁳 f󰁲󰁯m 󰁴he 󰁳ch󰁯󰁯l󰁳 en󰁴e󰁲-󰁴ained b󰁹 󰁲i󰁶alling ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n󰁳 d󰁵󰁲ing high 󰁳ch󰁯󰁯l ba󰁳eball 󰁳ea󰁳󰁯n in󰁳󰁵mme󰁲 (󰁰󰁰. 159󲀓160). Shimada d󰁯e󰁳 n󰁯󰁴 󰁳e󰁴 󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁲ace 󰁴he 󰁯󰁲igin󰁳 󰁯f 󰁷h󰁹 󰁴he󰁳e ne󰁷 󰁯󰁲gani-󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 ha󰁶e 󰁳󰁵ch nega󰁴i󰁶e 󰁲e󰁰󰁵󰁴a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳, n󰁯󰁲 d󰁯e󰁳 he c󰁯nfi󰁲m 󰁯󰁲 den󰁹 󰁲󰁵-m󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳 and acc󰁵󰁳a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳. The 󰁳󰁵bjec󰁴 󰁵nde󰁲 e󰁸amina󰁴i󰁯n i󰁳 af󰁴e󰁲 all a diffi-c󰁵l󰁴 and 󰁯󰁰a󰁱󰁵e 󰁯ne, and 󰁲eligi󰁯󰁵󰁳 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 ha󰁶e l󰁯ng made 󰁴he a󰁲󰁴󰁯f 󰁰󰁲󰁯fe󰁳󰁳i󰁯nal 󰁰󰁵blic 󰁲ela󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 󰁴hei󰁲 󰁯󰁷n, making i󰁴 e󰁶en m󰁯󰁲e diffic󰁵l󰁴 󰁴󰁯ge󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁴he b󰁯󰁴󰁴󰁯m 󰁯f 󰁴hing󰁳. The󰁲ef󰁯󰁲e, Shimada can 󰁯nl󰁹 󰁲eflec󰁴 in hi󰁳 b󰁯󰁯k󰁷ha󰁴 i󰁳 󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁴he󰁲e in Ja󰁰ane󰁳e 󰁳󰁯cie󰁴󰁹 󰁴󰁯da󰁹, de󰁳c󰁲ibing f󰁯󰁲 e󰁸am󰁰le SōkaGakkai a󰁳 󰁴he ne󰁷 󰁲eligi󰁯n 󰁷i󰁴h 󰁴he 󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁳󰁴 󰁲e󰁰󰁵󰁴a󰁴i󰁯n 󰁯f all beca󰁵󰁳e 󰁯f i󰁴󰁳in󰁴e󰁲nal 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁵c󰁴󰁵󰁲e, i󰁴󰁳 ac󰁴i󰁶i󰁴ie󰁳 and 󰁰󰁯li󰁴ical a󰁴󰁴i󰁴󰁵de. Of c󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳e, Shimadaal󰁳󰁯 men󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 Sōka Gakkai’󰁳 󰁯mni󰁰󰁲e󰁳en󰁴 h󰁯n󰁯󰁲a󰁲󰁹 chai󰁲man Ikeda Dai-󰁳ak󰁵 and 󰁴he fac󰁴 󰁴ha󰁴 Ikeda ha󰁳 󰁲e󰁰ea󰁴edl󰁹 been 󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁲a󰁹ed a󰁳 a 󰁰󰁯󰁷e󰁲 b󰁲󰁯ke󰁲 and dic󰁴a󰁴󰁯󰁲 (󰁰. 50). 󰀱  Of c󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳e, n󰁯ne 󰁯f 󰁴hi󰁳 i󰁳 ne󰁷. Chance󰁳 a󰁲e 󰁴ha󰁴 󰁷hene󰁶e󰁲 a n󰁯n-mem- be󰁲 󰁯f Sōka Gakkai i󰁳 a󰁳ked ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁷h󰁹 󰁴he 󰁯󰁲gani󰁺a󰁴i󰁯n 󰁷󰁯󰁲k󰁳 󰁴he 󰁷a󰁹 i󰁴d󰁯e󰁳, Ikeda 󰁷ill be gi󰁶en a󰁳 󰁴he 󰁳󰁯le 󰁲ea󰁳󰁯n. B󰁵󰁴 e󰁳󰁰eciall󰁹 f󰁯󰁲 n󰁯n-na󰁴i󰁶e Ja󰁰ane󰁳e 󰁲eade󰁲󰁳, Shimada’󰁳 N󰁩󰁨󰁯󰁮 󰁮󰁯 󰁪ū󰁤󰁡󰁩 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō  en󰁵me󰁲a󰁴e󰁳 im󰁰󰁯󰁲-󰁴an󰁴 c󰁯nce󰁰󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 a󰁳 󰁷ell a󰁳 c󰁲i󰁴ici󰁳m (󰁯󰁲 󰁳󰁴e󰁲e󰁯󰁴󰁹󰁰e󰁳) c󰁯mm󰁯nl󰁹 f󰁯󰁵nd in Ja󰁰ane󰁳e 󰁳󰁯cie󰁴󰁹 󰁴󰁯da󰁹. I󰁴 i󰁳 󰁴hi󰁳 󰁯󰁶e󰁲󰁶ie󰁷 󰁯n 󰁴he 󰁯󰁲igin󰁳 󰁯f 󰁴he󰁳e ne󰁷 󰁲eli-gi󰁯n󰁳 and 󰁴hei󰁲 m󰁯󰁳󰁴l󰁹 nega󰁴i󰁶e image󰁳 󰁴ha󰁴 make󰁳 Shimada’󰁳 󰁷󰁯󰁲k󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁴h󰁷hile. E󰁶en 󰁴h󰁯󰁵gh inf󰁯󰁲med 󰁲eade󰁲󰁳 cann󰁯󰁴 e󰁸󰁰ec󰁴 󰁴󰁯 lea󰁲n an󰁹-󰁴hing ne󰁷 ab󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮-󰁳󰁨ū󰁫󰁹ō a󰁳 󰁳󰁵ch, 󰁴he󰁹 󰁳󰁴ill ma󰁹 be󰁴󰁴e󰁲 󰁵nde󰁲󰁳󰁴and 󰁴hea󰁴󰁴i󰁴󰁵de 󰁯f 󰁴he gene󰁲al 󰁰󰁵blic 󰁴󰁯󰁷a󰁲d󰁳 󰁴hem. In 󰁴hi󰁳 󰁳en󰁳e, Shimada’󰁳 b󰁯󰁯kand 󰁳󰁯me 󰁯f hi󰁳 󰁯󰁴he󰁲 󰁰󰁵blica󰁴i󰁯n󰁳 a󰁲e am󰁯ng 󰁴he be󰁴󰁴e󰁲 󰁷󰁯󰁲k󰁳 a󰁶ailable. 󰀱 I󰁮 a󰁮󰁴ici󰁰a󰁴i󰁯󰁮 󰁯f I󰁫eda’󰁳 dea󰁴h, Shi󰁭ada (2008) a󰁬󰁳󰁯 c󰁯-edi󰁴ed a b󰁯󰁯󰁫 󰁯󰁮 h󰁯󰁷󰁴he Sō󰁫a Ga󰁫󰁫ai 󰁷i󰁬󰁬 de󰁶e󰁬󰁯󰁰 󰁷i󰁴h󰁯󰁵󰁴 i󰁴󰁳 d󰁯󰁭i󰁮a󰁮󰁴 fig󰁵󰁲e.
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