New Architecture in Wood Forms and Structures ---- (Multi-storey Buildings )

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  p. 102p. 110p. 116p. 122p. 128 Multi-storey buildings LCT One and IZMApartment building, Wagramer StraßeCanols staff hostelWälderhausWoodcube Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm, and Susanne Jacob-Freitag. New Architecture in Wood : Forms and Structures, Birkhäuser, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cuhk-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4229334.Created from cuhk-ebooks on 2018-02-05 19:52:33.    C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   ©   2   0   1   5 .   B   i  r   k   h   ä  u  s  e  r .   A   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d .  102   Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm, and Susanne Jacob-Freitag. New Architecture in Wood : Forms and Structures, Birkhäuser, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cuhk-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4229334.Created from cuhk-ebooks on 2018-02-05 19:52:33.    C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   ©   2   0   1   5 .   B   i  r   k   h   ä  u  s  e  r .   A   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d .  103 LifeCycle Tower One and Illwerke offices The LCT One unitised building system could well help modern timber construction to recapture the cultural significance that timber buildings had for towns and cities in the Middle Ages. Two examples demonstrate the comprehensive options of this hybrid building system, which is suitable for both high- and low-rise structures. The qualities of this system are, first and foremost, its standardised industrial production that takes up the early ideas of Konrad Wachsmann and transfers them to the modern age. It was in 2009 that Cree GmbH, a subsidiary of the Rhomberg construction company, initiated a research project with an interdisciplinary team of experts headed by Vorarlberg-based architect Hermann Kaufmann. Together, the specialists from R&D, practice, and applied science created a new timber hybrid building system that has helped timber construction shake off the provincialism with which it had been occasionally labelled. A rationalised modular system in every way, it can be used to construct buildings up to thirty storeys, i.e. 100 metres, high. The first two buildings erected with this new system – the eight-storey LifeCycle Tower One (LCT One) in Dornbirn in 2012 and the Illwerke office building in Montafon in 2013 – have restored timber construction to the world of international architecture and contemporary urban design.  LifeCycle Tower One Various factors are responsible for the pioneering achievement of the LCT system. CAD design and Symbol for a new era in timber construction: the eight-storey LifeCycle Tower One built to the passive-house energy standard Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm, and Susanne Jacob-Freitag. New Architecture in Wood : Forms and Structures, Birkhäuser, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cuhk-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4229334.Created from cuhk-ebooks on 2018-02-05 19:52:33.    C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   ©   2   0   1   5 .   B   i  r   k   h   ä  u  s  e  r .   A   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d .  104 computer-controlled fabrication plant allow the parts of the system, including insulation and space for services, to be prefabricated with millimetre accuracy and delivered to the building site just in time. Consequently, erection can take place straight away, with a consistently high standard of quality and without delays for drying out. In addition, the potential for errors is reduced to a mini-mum. The degree of prefabrication for the wall and floor elements is geared to future needs. That and the use of the renewable raw material wood, the low dust and noise emissions plus the complete recyclability guarantee the sustainability of this form of construction. Using the LCT system, one to two complete storeys were erected every day, meaning that, once the ground floor slab and the service core were finished, a weather- proof structural carcass could be assembled within ten days. It was also possible to increase the efficiency of the use of materials and resources, e.g. by using non-encapsulated, load-bearing, solid timber compo- nents – a new approach for multi-storey timber buildings. Refraining from encapsulation allowed the key features of the wood – texture, feel, and charm – to be retained and thus improve the interior. Built in reinforced concrete for fire protection reasons, the service core contains the stairs and lift, and at the same time carries loads and braces the building. The external wall construction, with the load-bearing timber structure left visible on the inside, has a U-value of 0.12 W/m²K for a thickness of 48 centimetres. From inside to outside, the layers of the wall are: OSB / vapour barrier, insulated timber frame, cement-bonded wood fibre board, cavity framing closed off with lightweight, incombustible, composite aluminium elements. With no walls or columns inside the building, users can subdivide the interior to suit their needs.  Simple plug-in connection The LCT system is designed with pinned joints, with the floors functioning as horizontal diaphragms with shear-resistant connections and the facade columns as pinned-end members. There are predefined points on the vertical service core for carrying the horizontal loads of the prefabricated suspended floor elements and transferring these to the foundations. The floor elements at 2.70 metres centre-to-centre are supported on unclad glued laminated timber columns integrated into the facade which carry the loads from the floor ele- ments down to the next twin timber column. As is customary with forms of construction using prefabricated components, the twin columns are fixed to the floor elements and secured against pull-out by way of simple plug-in tube / spigot connections. This principle behind the structural carcass guarantees the dimensional stability of the building in the vertical direction and ensures that vertical progress proceeds quickly and according to schedule. All floor and wall elements include projecting steel tubes. Each subsequent column fits onto the top end of the steel tube exactly. After-wards, the spaces within the column footprint are filled with grout. This creates a stable structural connection between the upper facade column and the floor element fitted below. So the vertical progress and the speed of erecting the LCT modular system are essentially determined by the high precision of modern engineered timber construction.  Multifunctional composite floors The timber-concrete composite ribbed floor developed specially for the LCT system combines various functions and also fulfils architectural requirements. Its com- paratively low self-weight is due to the relatively light- weight glulam ribs that are finished with an 80 millimetre concrete topping. As with the exposed timber facade columns, the solid timber ribs of the composite floor are left on show. The multifunctional building services were installed between the exposed timber ribs of the suspended floor elements. Service units, likewise prefabricated, include ventilation, sprinkler, and lighting systems as well as heating and cooling modules. The acoustic performance of the floor has been optimised through the use of a raised access floor whose voids were filled with concrete afterwards. Steel brackets, enclosed in gypsum fire-resistant board (GKF) to comply with fire protection requirements, are used to attach the composite floors to the service core. The fire protection concept required the individual storeys to be separated from each other. A reinforced concrete ring beam around each composite floor interrupts the glulam facade columns at every floor. In the event of a fire on one floor, the concrete prevents the fire spreading to the next floor above or below via the timber columns. The fire design of the composite floor was carried out to Eurocode 4 (REI). Cree GmbH carried out five series of laboratory tests to establish the fire resistance. Four of the composite floors conceived with different geometries were awarded test certificates for fire resistance classes REI 90 (= F90) and REI 120 (= F120). So the composite floors satisfy all fire, acoustic, load-bearing, and appearance requirements.  Office building for Illwerke, Montafon The new office complex for Vorarlberger Illwerke AG in Montafon, Austria, was built using the industrial building system field-tested on the prototype LCT One building. The 120 metre long, 60 metre wide and 21 metre high structure – and with about 10 000 m² of usable floor area one of the world’s largest timber-based office buildings –    L   C   T   O  n  e ,   D  o  r  n   b   i  r  n ,  a  n   d   I   Z   M ,   M  o  n   t  a   f  o  n Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm, and Susanne Jacob-Freitag. New Architecture in Wood : Forms and Structures, Birkhäuser, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cuhk-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4229334.Created from cuhk-ebooks on 2018-02-05 19:52:33.    C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   ©   2   0   1   5 .   B   i  r   k   h   ä  u  s  e  r .   A   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d .
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