Onshore+Pipelines+The+Road+to+Success+Vol+1

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  1 Onshore Pipelines THE ROAD TO SUCCESS  An IPLOCA document – 2nd edition September 2011  VOLUME ONE © Copyright IPLOCA 2011  2 Onshore Pipelines - THE ROAD TO SUCCESSVol. 1 IPLOCA OBJECTIVES Objective 1  To promote, foster and develop the science and practice of constructing onshore and offshore pipelines,and associated works. Objective 2  To make membership of the Association a reasonable assurance of the skill, integrity, performance, andgood faith of its Members, and more generally to promote good faith and professional ethics in industry. Objective 3  To maintain the standards of the contracting business for onshore and offshore pipelines and associatedworks at the highest professional level. Objective 4  To promote safety and develop methods for the reduction and elimination of accidents and injuries tocontractor’s employees in the industry, and all those engaged in, or affected by, operations and work. Objective 5  To promote protection of the environment and contribute to social, cultural and environmentaldevelopment programs, both in Switzerland and worldwide. Objective 6  To promote good and co-operative relationships amongst membership of the Association as well asbetween contractors, owners, operators, statutory and other organisations and the general public. Objective 7  To encourage efficiency amongst the Members, Associate Members and their employees. Objective 8  To seek correction of injurious, discriminatory or unfair business methods practised by or against theindustry contractors as a whole. Objective 9  To follow the established Codes of Conduct set out by the industry and others with respect to workingwithin a free and competitive market, and in doing so, to promote competition in the interests of amarket economy based on liberal principle, both in Switzerland and worldwide. Objective 10  To maintain and develop good relations with our Sister Associations as well as Associations allied to ourindustry and play a leading role in the World Federation of Pipeline Industry Associations. Disclaimer In the preparation of THE ROAD TO SUCCESS , every effort has been made to present current, correct andclearly expressed information. However, the information in the text is intended to offer generalinformation only and has neither been conceived as nor drafted as information upon which any person,whether corporate or physical, is entitled to rely, notably in connection with legally binding commitments.Neither its authors nor the persons mentioned herein nor the companies mentioned herein nor IPLOCA accept any liability whatsoever in relation to the use of this publication in whatsoever manner, includingthe information contained or otherwise referred to herein, nor for any errors or omissions containedherein. Readers are directed to consult systematically with their professional advisors for adviceconcerning specific matters before making any decision or undertaking any action.  3 Onshore Pipelines - THE ROAD TO SUCCESSVol. 1 Executive Summary “Onshore Pipelines: THE ROAD TO SUCCESS” was produced under the patronage of IPLOCA todescribe state-of-the-art project development and execution practices for onshore pipeline projects. It isthe collaborative result from six different working groups with the goal of covering all stages in thedevelopment of a pipeline project.  The updates (*) and the new developments (**) introduced into this Second Edition are highlighted inthis executive summary. Section 1Introduction Pipeline issues and challenges. Section 2Development Phases of a Pipeline Project Section 2 describes the key points to be addressed during the FEL (Front End Loading)phases in order to properly prepare for the project execution phase.Much of FEL is done well before a project is sanctioned and begins construction to ensurea complete project assessment so as to fully understand the challenges and risksassociated with a proposed pipeline project. During this period, project investors and theirdesign contractors typically have due diligence obligation to themselves and theirshareholders to achieve good FEL and therefore control the work process and make thekey project decisions. A detailed review of the data requirements and activities duringthose phases is included. Section 3The Baseline of a Construction Contract  The next steps take place at the point of project sanction, where construction soonbegins. A baseline understanding of the project scope and its risks must be establishedwhen investors and contractors enter into mutual agreement underlying a constructioncontract. This section offers recommendations for establishing the baseline for the Project Executionphases with four chapters: the Scope of Works, the Programme, the Cost and theContract. Section 4Dealing with Risks in Pipeline Projects *  After project sanction, irrespective of all the efforts to reduce challenges and risks throughthe FEL phases, there will inevitably be other challenges and risks that arise. These mayrepresent disruptions and changes to the established project baseline, so any pipelineconstruction contract must document how these residual risks will be addressed andmanaged. Section 5Best Practices in Planning and Design * Best practices are developed in this updated section for planning and design, with theprocess leading to the definition of the ROW and the information to be gathered duringthe different phases of a project. The routing and design of a pipeline requires a disciplined and organised sequence of actions to ensure that the most acceptable and optimised route avoiding as many hazardsas possible has been selected and that the system has been designed under acceptablestandards to satisfy fitness for purpose, environmental constraints and safety.  4 Onshore Pipelines - THE ROAD TO SUCCESSVol. 1  The Minimum Data Requirements and Activities for the Five Typical Project Stagesintroduced in section 2 above are defined in this chapter. Section 6Earthworks  The terrain, soil types, and geohazards traversed by the pipeline are key factors toconsider in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of a pipeline project.Firstly, the terrain typically affects pipeline hydraulics, above ground stations and pipelineprotection. Secondly, soil types will affect heat transfer, pipeline restraint, andconstructability. Finally, geohazards often require special design and constructionconsiderations. The Earthworks section offers guidelines on how to prepare the right of way (ROW) indifferent types of terrain, on the earthworks design, on the recommended measures toreduce the impact on the environment, and finally on the approach to health and safety. Section 7Crossings **  This new section, to be further developed, is initiated with a description and comparison of the different methods to execute major trenchless crossings. Section 8Logistics **  The risks associated with the logistics of pipe such as handling, transport, coating andstorage begin this new section. Other logistic constraints of pipeline projects will be furtherdeveloped in future editions. Section 9Welding (section to be developed)  This important topic deserves a section of its own, yet to be developed. Section 10Non Destructive Testing **  The section starts with a review of the main concerns of the different stakeholders of thepipeline for completing the project. The second subject will be the role of codes andstandards in the design and building of pipelines. Finally the issues involved with NDT atthe various stages of the project are addressed:ãThe role of NDT in the FEL/FEED stages.ãVendor inspection and NDT at the material suppliersãGirth weld inspection during the construction stageãNDT during the use of the pipeline; considerations during the construction stage forfuture maintenance Section 11Pipeline Protection Systems * Most of the installed and currently planned onshore transmission pipelines around theworld are steel pipelines and their integrity during all the manufacturing, handling, storage,installation and service life stages is an important aspect of any pipeline project. As theexternal corrosion and the mechanical impacts have been identified as the most commoncauses of pipe damage and failure in onshore pipelines, industry’s efforts have beenfocused on addressing these issues in order to avoid potential economic, environmentaland human costs from pipeline failures. Therefore, this document reviews the passiveexternal anti-corrosion systems as well as the active cathodic protection approach.
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