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1. SUBMITTED TO: Dr. Kakoli Dutt Dept. of Bioscience & Biotechnology SUBMITTED BY: Anveshika Manoj B.Tech(III) Year 7282 2.  1st epidemic (Antiqua) – 541 AD;…
  • 1. SUBMITTED TO: Dr. Kakoli Dutt Dept. of Bioscience & Biotechnology SUBMITTED BY: Anveshika Manoj B.Tech(III) Year 7282
  • 2.  1st epidemic (Antiqua) – 541 AD; Mediterranean region, 50-60% of pop.  2nd epidemic (Medievalis) – 1346-1351; 1/3 of the pop. of Europe died (20-30 million)  3rd epidemic (Orientalis) – 1855-1890; started in China, spread through Asia; 10 million died in India alone JUSTINIAN THE ROMAN EMPEROR
  • 3. Bubonic Septicemic • Primary • Secondary Pneumonic • Primary • Secondary
  • 4.  Most common form (~85% of all cases).  Causes swollen lymph nodes (buboes).  Spread via direct contact with bubo drainage.  The backbone of the survival of Y. pestis .
  • 5.  Causes severe blood infection throughout the body and gangrene of acral regions Primary: • occurs when a flea inserts y. pestis directly into the bloodstream Secondary: • occurs as a severe development from bubonic or pneumonic
  • 6. • Least common, yet most dangerous form. • Transmitted via direct inhalation of the germs. Primary: • occurs via inhalation of pneumonic respiratory droplets Secondary: • occurs when bubonic or septicemia plagues spread to the lungs
  • 7. Fleas live in nests of wild rodents. Disturbance (war, flood etc) cause wild rodents to migrate to urban areas. Infected fleas jump from wild rodents to domesticated rodents, pets .  Direct infection from animals possible. Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplet (pneumonic plague).
  • 8.  For Bubonic :>  Pain/tenderness at regional lymph nodes enlarge to become “buboes  Ulcer or skin lesions at site of flea bite in <10% of cases For Septimic :> • 1º SEPTICEMIC PLAGUE is due to spreading of Y. pestis by way of the bloodstream from the site of inoculation without bubo formation
  • 9. For Septimic :> • Hemorrhagic changes in skin called “purpuric lesions” • Extremity gangrene  For Pneumonic:> • Productive cough • Hemoptysis • Rapid, shallow breathing • Cyanosis • Nausea and vomiting • Abdominal pain
  • 10. Conditions for -  Suspected Plague:  Clinical symptom of plague  Recently traveled to a plague-endemic region  Presumptive Plague : • Immunofluorescence stain of sample is positive for the presence of Y. pestis F1 antigen  Confirmed Plague: • Isolate Y. pestis from the specimen • Observe at least a 4 fold elevation in serum antibody titer to the F1 antigen
  • 13. • Isolate infected animals • Flea and Rodent control • Prevent roaming or hunting of pets • Insect repellents for skin & clothes • Insecticide use in epizootic areas • Call for more inquiry at CDC at (800)232-4636.
  • 14. 1. Although there has been a general decline in the incidence of plague worldwide, the number of countries affected by plague remains substantial. 2. There has been an obvious change in the distribution of plague morbidity by continent. Whereas in the 1970s plague cases were reported predominately from Asia, in the 1980s and the 1990s a small number of African countries with well-known natural plague foci reported the highest number of cases. 3. Despite the availability of a number of highly effective therapeutic agents, mortality due to plague remains unacceptably high
  • 15.     lance/en/plague/pdf  plague.pdf  df
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