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Salvation in Christianity Salvation in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.[1] Variant views on salvation are among the main fault lines dividing the various Christian denominations, being a point of disagreement between Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, as well as within Protestantism, notably in the Calvinist–Arminian debate. The fault lines include conflicting definitions of depravity, predestination, atonement, and most
  Salvation in Christianity Salvation in Christianity , or deliverance , is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences. [1] Variant views on salvation are among the main fault lines dividing the various Christian denominations, being a point of disagreement between Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, as well as within Protestantism, notably in theCalvinist–Arminian debate. The fault lines include conflicting definitions of depravity, predestination, atonement, and mostpointedly, justification. SummaryParadigms of sa lvation Moral transformationChristus VictorRansom from SatanSatisfactionPenal substitution and faith Catholicism Salvation of non-CatholicsSaint Anselm Eastern ChristianityProtestantism LutheranismCalvinismArminianismUniversalismChurches of ChristComparison The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints See alsoReferencesFurther readingOther websites According to Christian belief, salvation from sin in general and srcinal sin in particular is made possible by the life, death, andresurrection of Jesus, which in the context of salvation is referred to as the atonement . [2]  Christian soteriology ranges fromexclusive salvation [3]:p.123  to universal reconciliation [4]  concepts. While some of the differences are as widespread as Christianityitself, the overwhelming majority agrees that Christian salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, dyingon the cross. ContentsSummary  At the heart of Christian faith is the reality and hope of salvation in Jesus Christ. Christian faith is faith in the God ofsalvation revealed in Jesus of Nazareth. The Christian tradition has always equated this salvation with thetranscendent, eschatological fulfillment of human existence in a life freed from sin, finitude, and mortality and unitedwith the triune God. This is perhaps the  non-negotiable item of Christian faith. What has been a matter of debate isthe relation between salvation and our activities in the world.  — Anselm Kyongsuk Min [5]:p.79 Different theories of atonement have been proposed for how Christian salvation can be understood. Over the centuries, Christianshave held different ideas about how Jesus saved people, and different views still exist within different Christian denominations. Themain paradigms of salvation that have been proposed are: [6] The moral transformation view was the predominant understanding of salvation among Christians during the first three centuriesAD, [7][8][9][10][11]  and continues to be held by some denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox today. In this view, Jesus savedpeople from sinfulness through his life and teachings, thus transforming their character to become righteous. This salvation is seen asundeserved, since God graciously sent Jesus to save people when they were unrighteous and did not in any way deserve such afavour. In the moral transformation paradigm, a person is saved from sinfulness by faithfully following the teachings of Jesus, and theexample he set of how to live. Consequently, a person becomes righteous in God's sight, and can expect a positive final judgment byGod. Perfection is not required, and mistakes are forgiven after repentance. In this view, Jesus' crucifixion is understood primarily asa martyrdom. [12] The moral transformation view has been criticised and rejected by many Protestant Christians, for a variety of reasons. Critics believethat the moral transformation view conflicts with various biblical passages (particularly ones by Paul regarding 'faith' and 'works'),underestimates the seriousness of sin and denies the atoning value of Jesus' death.In the Christus Victor  view, people needed salvation from the powers of evil. Jesus achieved salvation for people by defeating thepowers of evil, particularly Satan. This view has been dated in writings of the Church Fathers up to the 4th centuries AD, although itremained popular for several centuries. Several perspectives on this idea existed, which can be roughly divided into conquest of Sataand rescue from Satan's power. In the conquest of Satan version, writers such as Eusebius of Caesareadepicted Jesus defeating Satanin a great spiritual battle that occurred between his death and resurrection. [13]  By winning this battle, Jesus overthrew Satan andsaved people from his dominion. The Christus Victor view is not widely held in the West.The ransom theory of atonemententails the idea that Satan had power over sinful souls in the afterlife, but that Christ rescued peoplefrom his power. Often, the death of Christ plays an important role in this rescue. The view appears to have arisen during the 3rdcentury, [14]  in the writings of Origen and other theologians. In one version of the idea, Satan attempted to take Jesus' soul after he hadied, but in doing so over-extended his authority, as Jesus had never sinned. As a consequence, Satan lost his authority completely,and all humanity gained freedom. In another version, God entered into a deal with Satan, offering to trade Jesus' soul in exchange forthe souls of all people, but after the trade, God raised Jesus from the dead and left Satan with nothing. Other versions held that Jesus'divinity was masked by his human form, so Satan tried to take Jesus’ soul without realizing that his divinity would destroy Satan'spower. Another idea is that Jesus came to teach how not to sin and Satan, in anger with this, tried to take his soul. The ransom theoryis not widely held in the West. Paradigms of salvation Moral transformationChristus VictorRansom from Satan  In the 11th century, Anselm of Canterbury rejected the ransom view, and proposed the satisfaction theory of atonement. He depictedGod as a feudal lord, whose honour had been offended by the sins of humankind. In this view, people needed salvation from thedivine punishment that these offences would bring, since nothing they could do could repay the honour debt. Anselm held that Christhad infinitely honoured God through his life and death and that Christ could repay what humanity owed God, thus satisfying theoffence to God's honour and doing away with the need for punishment. When Anselm proposed the satisfaction view, it wasimmediately criticised by Peter Abelard.In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformers reinterpreted Anselm's satisfactiontheory of salvation within a legal paradigm. In the legal system, offences requiredpunishment, and no satisfaction could be given to avert this need. They proposed atheory known as penal substitution, in which Christ takes the penalty of people's sinas their substitute, thus saving people from God's wrath against sin. Penalsubstitution thus presents Jesus saving people from the divine punishment of theirpast wrongdoings. However, this salvation is not presented as automatic. Rather, aperson must have faith in order to receive this free gift of salvation. In the penalsubstitution view, salvation is not dependent upon human effort or deeds.The penal substitution paradigm of salvation is widely held among Protestants, whooften consider it central to Christianity. However, it has also been widelycritiqued. [15][16][17][18]  Advocates of the New Perspective on Paul also argue thatmany New Testament books by Paul the Apostle used to support the theory of penal substitution should be interpreted differently.A crucial difference between the Catholic and Calvinist understanding of salvation is that, unlike Calvinism, Catholicism believesthat, after the Fall, humanity did not become totally corrupt (as per total depravity , which precludes man from any merit insalvation), but was only wounded by sin, and stands in need of salvation from God , nevertheless, it is human nature so fallen,stripped of the grace that clothed it, injured in its own natural powers and subjected to the dominion of death, that is transmitted to allmen... [19] Divine help comes in Christ through the law that guides and the grace that sustains, by which souls work out their own salvationwith fear and trembling. [20]  That divine help, that grace, is a favour, a free and undeserved gift from God which helps us to respondto his invitation to enter relationship. [21] Catholics profess belief that Christ alone is the Saviour of the human race. Christ is God incarnate, bringing about redemption fromsin, for …all salvation comes through Christ. [22] …she (the Church) proclaims, and ever must proclaim Christ 'the way, the truth, and the life' (John 14:6), in whommen may find the fullness of religious life, in whom God has reconciled all things to Himself. [23] In Catholicism, justification is granted by God via the act ( ex opere operato ) of baptism firstly, [24]  by which the subject is formally justified and made holy by his own personal justice and holiness ( causa formalis ), [25]  instead of appropriated plainly by a living faithas under sola fide , and normally from the sacrament of reconciliation after if a mortal sin is committed. Christ can work apart andbefore the sacrament of baptism, as desire for eventual baptism is grace enough to be saved, since God is not tied to work by meansof his instituted sacraments. [26]  Nevertheless, Christ instituted the sacrament of Penance for all sinful members of his Church: aboveall for those who, since Baptism, have fallen into grave sin, and have thus lost their baptismal grace and wounded ecclesialcommunion. It is to them that the sacrament of Penance offers a new possibility to convert and to recover the grace of justification. SatisfactionPenal substitution and faith A 'Jesus Saves' neon cross signoutside of a Protestant church inNew York City. Catholicism  The Fathers of the Church present this sacrament as the second plank [of salvation] after the shipwreck which is the loss of grace. This is not the only way for sins to be forgiven, as in some cases these can also be forgiven by confessing to God alone. This is whythe Catholic Church teaches that Christians outside of the Church can be saved, since in many cases other Christian denominations dnot possess the priesthood instituted from Jesus Christ and thus lack access to the binding and loosing that priests of the NewCovenant practice through the sacrament. [27]  A mortal sin makes justification lost even if faith (intellectual assent) is still present.The Catholic Church declared in the ecumenical Council of Trent that, If anyone says that the sinner is justified by faith alone,[114]meaning that nothing else is required to cooperate in order to obtain the grace of justification, and that it is not in any way necessarythat he be prepared and disposed by the action of his own will, let him be anathema. in canon 9 of session VI. [28]  It also said in theVII session in canon IV, If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous; andthat, without them, or without the desire thereof, men obtain of God, through faith alone, the grace of justification;-though all (thesacraments) are not indeed necessary for every individual; let him be anathema (excommunicated). [29] In Catholicism, Christ provides the Church with 'the fullness of the means of salvation' which he has willed: correct and completeconfession of the Christian faith, full sacramental life, and ordained ministry in apostolic succession. [30]  Although the CatholicChurch upholds the doctrine of extra Ecclesiam nulla salus  (outside the Church there is no salvation) this does not mean that all theelect were in visible communion of the Catholic Church during their life, for Jesus, the Son of God, freely suffered death for us incomplete and free submission to the will of God, his Father. By his death he has conquered death, and so opened the possibility ofsalvation to all men. [31] As regards Protestants in particular, in Vatican II and subsequent teaching it is stated, The Church recognizes that in many ways she is linked with those who, being baptized, are honored with the nameof Christian, though they do not profess the faith in its entirety or do not preserve unity of communion with thesuccessor of Peter. (Cf. Gal. 4:6; Rom. 8:15-16 and 26)For there are many who honor Sacred Scripture, taking it as a norm of belief and a pattern of life, and who show asincere zeal. They lovingly believe in God the Father Almighty and in Christ, the Son of God and Saviour. (Cf. Jn.16:13) They are consecrated by baptism, in which they are united with Christ. They also recognize and accept othersacraments within their own Churches or ecclesiastical [Protestant] communities...They also share with us in prayerand other spiritual benefits. Likewise we can say that in some real way they are joined with us in the Holy Spirit, forto them too He gives His gifts and graces whereby He is operative among them with His sanctifying power. Someindeed He has strengthened to the extent of the shedding of their blood... [32] ...men who believe in Christ and have been truly baptized are in communion with the Catholic Church even thoughthis communion is imperfect. ...it remains true that all who have been justified by faith in Baptism are members ofChrist's body, and have a right to be called Christian, and so are correctly accepted as brothers by the children of theCatholic Church...For the Spirit of Christ has not refrained from using them as means of salvation which derive theirefficacy from the very fullness of grace and truth entrusted to the Church.... It is right and salutary to recognize theriches of Christ and virtuous works in the lives of others who are bearing witness to Christ, sometimes even to theshedding of their blood. For God is always wonderful in His works and worthy of all praise.” [33] Catholicism teaches that Protestantism is a part of Christianity, the only true faith (Catholicism regards all non-Christian religionsas beliefs since they are not based on God's revelation in history, Dominus Iesus p. 7), [34]  nevertheless, individual Protestantsaware of the fact that Christ established the Catholic Church, but fail to join its membership, cannot be saved since they are livingin open contempt towards God's known truth. [32] Concerning Jews and Muslims, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church,  Lumen gentium , states: Salvation of non-Catholics
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