Suit (Cards)

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  Trump (card games) A trump  is a playing card which is elevated above its usual rank in trick-takinggames. Typically, an entire suit is nominated as a trump suit  ; these cards thenoutrank all cards of plain (non-trump) suits. In other contexts, the term trump card  can refer to any sort of action, authority, or policy which automatically prevails overall others. EtymologyTrump in card gamesMetaphorical usesSee alsoReferences The English word trump  derives from trionfi , a type of 15th-century Italian playingcards, from the Latin triumphus   triumph, victory procession , ultimately (viaEtruscan) from Greek θρίαμβος, the term for a hymn to Dionysus sung in processions in his honour. Trionfi  was the 15th-century card game for which tarot cards were designed. Trionfi were a fifth suit in the card game which acted as permanent trumps. Still in the 15thcentury, the French game triomphe  (Spanish triunfo ) used four suits one of whichwas randomly selected as trumps. It was this game that became extremely popular in Western Europe in the 16th century and isancestral to many modern card games.The English word is first documented in 1529 as the name of a card game which would develop into Ruff and Honours and ultimately Whist. [1]  In German, the term is attested as Triumph  in 1541; the modern German spelling Trumpf   is recorded from 1590. [2]  InFrench, triomphe  remained the name of the game, while the trump suit was called atout  , from à tout   (as it were all-in ). [3]  SomeEuropean languages (Hungarian, Greek) adopted the French term. Russian козырь kozyr'   is of unknown etymology, possibly a loanfrom a Turkic source. [4]  Polish variously uses atut  , trumf   and kozer  adopted from the French, German and Russian respectively.In most games, the relative rank of cards within a suit is the same in trump and plain suits, but they may sometimes differ, forexample in Klabberjass, Euchre, or Eighty Points.The trump suit may be fixed as in Spades, rotate on a fixed schedule or depend on the outcome of the previous hand as in Ninety-nine, be determined by drawing a card at random as in Bezique, by the last card dealt to a designated player as in Whist, by the firstcard played as in Nine Card Don, be chosen by a designated player as in Barbu, or players may bid for the right to select the trumpsuit as in Contract Bridge or Skat. The drawn trump suit is a club card(2 of clubs). South leads sloughs witha 3 of Hearts, West attempts to trump with a 4 of Clubs, North raises thetrump with a King of clubs, and Eastplays a Little Joker for the win. ContentsEtymologyTrump in card games  In most games, trump cards cannot be played if the player has any cards of the suit led to the trick; the requirement to follow suit isof higher priority. In a few games, trumps can be played at any time. Playing the first trump to an already-started trick is known as trumping  or ruffing ; if another player were to play a higher trump, that would be an overruff   or overtrump .The tarot deck contains a fifth suit, known in gaming as the atouts  or honours  and in occult circles as the Major Arcana, which servesas a permanent trump suit in games played with the tarot deck. The suit consists of twenty-two cards, including a Fool which servesas a highest trump (in Central Europe) or excuses the players from following suit elsewhere. [5] Due primarily to the prevalence of the trump in card games, the term used in Japan for the standard 52-card deck of playing cards is toranpu  ( トランプ ), derived from the English word trump . [6] From this card game use came metaphoric uses, e.g.: He (The Penguin) might have played all Aces, but I ( Batman) will play my trump card. – 1966-03-24 Episode 22 ofBatman & Robin season 1. The CEO needs this report in one hour . That trumps anything you're currently working on. He trumped my ace for I thought that I had a winning advantage, but he brought along something to defeat it. In general strategy, a trump card is the move one party can use to attain decisive victory. In this sense, a trump card can be a person, aweapon, or the starting of a chain of events. Major ArcanaPlaying cardTarot card gamesTop TrumpsTriompheTrionfi (cards)Trump card (disambiguation)Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trump_(card_games)&oldid=815800631 This page was last edited on 17 December 2017, at 06:30. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using thissite, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the WikimediaFoundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.1. Etymonline.com (http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=trump)2. Wolfgang Pfeifer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen (1997)3. recorded in 1440 in  jouer atout    making a risky play , used figuratively in the military context of a siege. cnrtl.fr (http:// www.cnrtl.fr/definition/atout)4. Max Vasmer, козырь (http://www.classes.ru/all-russian/russian-dictionary-Vasmer-term-5522.htm) in Этимологический словарь русского языка (1964–1973).5. Place, Robert Michael (2005). The Tarot: History, Symbolism, and Divination (https://books.google.com/books?id=LxMm7h7uhrUC&dq=The+Tarot:+History,+Symbolism,+and+Divination&source=gbs_navlinks_s). Penguin. pp. 5–8.ISBN 1-58542-349-1. Retrieved September 2, 2010. 6. A Japanese website for a playing card manufacturer (Nintendo) selling Trump playing cards.(https://www.nintendo.co.jp/n09/trump_items/index.html) Metaphorical usesSee alsoReferences
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