Surveying 2

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Basic Surveying
   1   PREPARED BY: ENGR. SHADMAN KHAN (0300 9075886) MS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION OF SURVEYING  –   New Course Aims i- To develop an understanding of surveying & leveling theory and practice. ii- To develop an ability to translate survey information for design and construction purposes. iii- To develop a skill in the use of survey instruments. Description The course provides an overview of surveying & leveling practice and demonstrates an understanding of area control by theodolite and compass. It explains the methods of establishing the contours of an area by field exercise. It includes exercises in setting out and controlling complex construction works. Recommended Book: Surveying and leveling by N N Basak   Week Chapter No. / Topic(s) Book No. Chapter No. 1 Surveying, Definition , Applications, Classification of surveying, General principles of surveying, Methods of linear measurement , Accessories of linear measurement 1 1 2 Methods of ranging (Direct and Indirect), Testing a chain, Degree of accuracy in chaining, Leader and Follower, Methods of chaining; on level ground and sloping ground 1 1 3 Obstacles in chaining and their subsequent solutions, Determination of height of an object using tape and ranging rods only 1 1 4 Tape corrections (due to temperature, pull, slope, sag, and normal tension.) 1 1 5 Numerical problems on Obstacles in chaining, Tape corrections 1 1 6 Triangulation, well-conditioned and ill-conditioned triangles, Reconnaissance survey and index sketch, Selection of survey stations, Equipment used in triangulation survey 1 2 7 Traversing, Types of Traverse, WCB, Quadrantal bearing, Reduced bearing, Fore and Back bearing, Methods of traversing, Checks on open and closed traverse 1 3   2   PREPARED BY: ENGR. SHADMAN KHAN (0300 9075886) MS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 8 Numericals Traversing 1 3 9 Mid-Term Examinations  10 Plane Table surveying, Principle, Accessories of Plane Table, Procedure of setting up Plane Table over a station, Methods of Plane Tabling, Advantages and Disadvantages of Plane Tabling 1 4 11 Levelling, Terminology, Types of levels, Dumpy level, Temporary adjustment of a level, Differential levelling, Reciprocal levelling, Profile levelling, Sources of errors in leveling 1 5 12 Contouring, Terminology, Objective of Contour map, uses of contour map, Characteristics of contours, Methods of contouring 1 6 13 Theodolite, Terminology, Functions of a theodolite, Types, Reading the vernier theodolite, Temporary adjustment of theodolite, Measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, Computation of latitude and departure 1 9 14 Tacheometry, Instruments used in tacheometry, Principle of tacheometer, Method of tacheometry, Setting out a building 1 11, 14 15 Introduction to Total station, GPS, RS, Hydrographic Surveying 1 13 16 Review 17 -18 Final Examination     3   PREPARED BY: ENGR. SHADMAN KHAN (0300 9075886) MS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION OF SURVEYING  CHAPTER # 1 Introduction to surveying This chapter includes: Surveying, Definition , Applications, Classification of surveying, General principles of surveying, Methods of linear measurement , Accessories of linear measurement. Surveying: It is the art of determination of horizontal distances, differences in elevation, directions, angles, locations, areas and volumes on or near the surface of the earth. It involves the measurement and recording of the size and shape (including the vertical shape) of an area on the earth’s surface. The process of survey is divided into two parts:    Field work- taking measurements    Office work- computing and drawing. Object of survey:  The primary object of survey is the preparation of plan or map. The results of surveys when  plotted and drawn on paper constitute a plan. A plan is, the representation to some scale, of the ground and the objects upon it as projected on a horizontal plane, which is represented by the  plane of the paper on which the plan is drawn. The representation is called a map, if the scale is small. If the scale is large, it is called a plan. On plan, only horizontal distances are shown. The scale of a map is the fixed relation that, every distance on the map bears to the corresponding distance on the ground. Suppose, if one cm on a map represents 5 m on the ground, the scale of a map is 5m to 1 cm. Primary division of surveying:  Surveying may be divided into two general classes: (a) Geodetic surveying (b) Plane surveying Geodetic surveying:  It is also called Trigonometrical surveying. The object of a geodetic surveying is to determine the precise positions on the surface of the earth of a system of widely distant points and the dimensions of areas. In this survey, the curvature of the earth is taken into account, since large distances and areas are covered. Artificial earth satellites have come into wide use in this survey. Plane surveying:   In this survey, the earth’s surface is considered as a plane. The curvature of the earth is not taken into account, as the surveys extend only to small areas. The line joining any two points as a straight line and all angles are plane angles. Surveys normally carried out for the location and construction of roads, canals and, buildings. In general, the surveys necessary for the works of man are plane surveys. Classification of surveying:  Surveys may be classified in a variety of ways. I . Classification based upon the nature of the field of survey:  (a) Land Surveys.   4   PREPARED BY: ENGR. SHADMAN KHAN (0300 9075886) MS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (b) Marine or Navigation Surveys. (c) Astronomical Surveys. II. Classification upon the object of survey:  (i) Archaeological surveys. (ii) Geological Surveys - for determining different strata in the earth’s crust. (iii) Mine Surveys- for exploring mineral wealth such as gold, coal, etc. (iv) Military Surveys- for determining points of strategic importance both offensive and defensive. III. Classification based upon the methods employed in survey:  (a) Triangulation Surveys. (b) Traverse Surveys. IV. Classification based upon the instrument employed:  (i) Chain Surveys. (ii) Theodolite Surveys. (iii) Tacheometric Surveys. (iv) Compass Surveys. (v) Plane Table Surveys. (vi) Photographic and Aerial Surveys. Agricultural surveying: It is a simple plane surveying. It includes laying out contour and terrace lines for soil conservation, drainage lines, profile lines for land leveling and ditch lines for irrigation, computing field and farm areas and laying out farm buildings and roads. General Principles of Surveying: The main Principle of Surveying is working from whole to the part. Two main works done for surveying an area are the following. 1. Distance Measurement between two points.(LENGTH) 2. Clockwise Angle Measurement of a line joining two points from Magnetic Meridian. (BEARING) Methods of linear measurement: Linear  surveying methods   can be broadly divided into three heads:  1)   Direct Measurement: In this surveying method, distances are actually measured on the surface of the earth by means of chains , tapes ,  etc.
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