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Thermal Properties of Wood and Wood Products W.P. Goss R.G. MUler ABSTRACT lope thermal performance. The improved thermal property data for wood and wood-based products that are presented This paper presents the methods used 10 arrive at the in this paper and the recommended ASHRAE researc
  Thermal Properties of Wood and Wood Products W P Goss ABSTRACT his paper presents the methods used 1 arrive t the revised thermal properties o wood included in Table 4, Chapter 22, 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals ASHRAE 1989). The procedures used to determine the specific heat, range o densities, and range o thermal conductivities o wood species generally used in building construction are presented. he rationale was to use the wood thermal property data available in publications handbooks, journals, transactions, proceedings), from wood associations and from new experimental data to determine the thermal properties o wood species not listed in previous editions o he Handbook. he moisture content is assumed to be 12 , which is considered the average or woods in service in buildings in the United States. This tends to give somewhat conservative values or the thermal resistance o wood but is probably more realistic than the two wood thermal resistances that appeared in the 98 Fundamentals ASHRAE 1981). he paper also documents the changes made in the building board section o he 1989 Fundamentals ASHRAE 1989) and repm ts a set o test results or oven-dried waferboard. INTRODUCTION This paper presents the methods used to arrive at the revised thermal properties of wood species and wood products that have been introduced into recent editions of ASHRAE Fundamentals. The thermal properties of wood were first included in Table 3A, Chapter 23, of the 1985 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1985) and subsequently n Table 4, Chapter 22, of the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1989). The thermal properties of several newer wood products were first included in Table 4, Chapter 22, of the 1989 Fundamentals. The objective was to use the thermal property data of wood species and wood products that are available in publications (handbooks, journals, transactions, proceedings), informa tion obtained from wood associations, and any reliable new experimental data to develop improVed thermal properties of wood species and wood products. The building material, thermal conductivity, and specific heat property data that are listed in Table 4, Chapter 22, of the 1989 Fundamentals are used extensively in steady-state and transient caJculations of building enve- R.G. MUler lope thermal performance. The improved thermal property data for wood and wood-based products that are presented n this paper and the recommended ASHRAE research project are needed as building envelopes become more energy efficient and wood and, wood-based materials become some of the components with higher thermal in a building s wall, roof, ceiling, or floor. LITERATURE REVIEW Wood Species A primary source of information on the properties of wood and wood products is the Wood Handbook (FPL 1972), which is now available in a revised version (FPL 1989). Chapter 3 of the Wood Handbook (on the physical properties of wood) has a section on thermal properties that includes information on the thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity of wood. This information, along with sections on moisture content and weight-densityspecific gravity in the same chapter, provides a good start ing point for understanding the thermal properties of wood. Since wood is a hygroscopic material, which means it can absorb moisture, the thermal properties of wood are functions of the moisture content in addition to the dependence on density and temperature that other materials usually exhibit. A further complication is due to the wide variety of wood species (e.g., ash, maple, fir) and the subcategories within these (e.g., black ash, white ash, black maple, red maple, silver maple, sugar maple, balsam fir, white fir, etc.). The basic structure of wood is nonhomogeneous with wood fibers that run in the general direction of the tree axis, called the longitudinal direction. Figure 1 is a photomicrograph picture (at 200 times magnification) taken of a fir wood sample looking approximately in the longitudinal direction. The 100 , (0.00039 in.) line indicates that the diameter of a wood fiber cell is approximately 20 to 30 ' (0.00079 to 0.000118 in.) for this sample. The wood fiber cells are primarily made of the carbohydrate cellulose (the framework of the wood cells) cemented together by lignin, a complex polymer group. The wood cells are longer (0.04 to 0.33 inches [1 to 8 mm]) in the longitudinal direction and are normally closed at both ends. Some wood cells have open ends and when they are set above each other, form continuous passages called vessels (FPL 0 )./,, William P. Goss is a professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst; R is a research associate at the Center for Applied Engineering, Inc .. st Petersburg. FL. 193  Figure 1 Photomicrograph o wood sample. As new wood cells are made, rings are formed annually due to the difference in growth of the tree during the early and late portions of the growth season when more compact, smaller-diameter cells are formed. These longitudinal annular rings can be observed when a tree is cut. The other two directions are radial and t ng~nti l to these annular rings. Wood is normally cut with the longitudinal direction as the longest dimension, and in building applications, heat transfer usually occurs across the annular rings or grains. Moisture can be absorbed by the wood fibers that make up the longitudinal cell walls up to a point, which is called the fiber saturation point. Beyond this, the water starts to fill the cells. The fiber saturation point is approximately 30 moisture content (defined as the mass of moisture [water] divided by the weight of the dry wood) (FPL 1989). Since wood is harvested in the green state, which can range from 25 to more than 200 moisture content, it is normally dried, usually in a kiln, before it is used in building construction so that it will remain in relative equilibrium with the atmosphere at a moisture content well below that of green wood. Therefore, this paper will con centrate on the thermal properties of wood that has moisture contained in the wood fibers and has a moisture content below that of green wood. The thermal conductivity information provided in the Wood Handbook (FPL 1972, 1989) is based on the work of MacLean (1941). MacLean developed an expression for the thermal conductivity of wood as a function of the wood density and moisture content that is used in the Wood Handbook (FPL 1972, 1989). The thermal conductivity is shown to be linearly related to the wood density and moisture content and yields the thermal conductivity of air (which fills the cells) when the wood density (and, therefore, also the moisture content) goes to zero. This relatively simple relationship exists over a wide range of densities of wood species. More recently, Wilkes (1979), in developing a data base of building products properties, re-examined the 94 thermal conductivity and specific heat data available at that time and develQped empirical thermal conductivity and specific heat regression equations for wood. The thermal conductivity equation developed for conditions near room temperature was similar in form to MacLean's (1941) expression, yielding the thermal conductivity of air when the wood density went to zero. Wilkes (1979) also developed a relationship that showed the variation of the thermal conductivity of wood as a function of temperature. The specific heat of wood equation developed by Wilkes (1979) is a function of temperature and moisture content and is similar in form to one given in the Wood Handboak (FPL 1972, 1989). Subsequent to Wilkes (1979) work, Cardenas and Bible (1987) recommended that ASHRAE TC 4.4 revise the thermal properties of wood given in Table 3A, Chapter 23, of the 1981 Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1981) from the two values given for hardwoods and softwoods to a wider range of wood species used in building construction. Cardenas and Bible (1987) summarized in tabular form density, moisture content, mean temperature, and thermal conductivity data from a number of references. They then statistically anal yzed the data to arrive at mean values of the thermal conductivity as a function of selected wood species. In addition, they recommended a finer breakdown of the groups of wood species that are representative of those used in building construction and then developed average thermal conductivity values for these groups. Cardenas and Bible also compared their results with the empirical wood thermal conductivity equations of MacLean (1941) and Wilkes (1979) and concluded that Wilkes equation gave more rep resentative results. After Cardenas and Bible submitted preliminary drafts of their work to ASHRAE T 4.4, the wood species groups were modified somewhat based on input from the Forest Products Laboratory and the National Forest Products Association. t was also decided by ASHRAE TC 4.4 to use ranges of wood densities at 12 moisture content and, therefore, ranges of thermal conductivities to indicate the variability of wood properties. This moisture content may be conservative, as a recent report by Tsongas (1990) showed an average moisture content of 16 2 for 86 homes in Montana and Washington. After the wood species' density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat changes recommended in the Cardenas and Bible (1987) paper were made in the 1985 Fundamentals TenWolde et al. (1988) published a report that examined the thermal properties of wood and wood panel products. This report is an excellent review of the current status of the thermal conductivity and specific heat data for wood and wood panel products that are used in building construction. TenWolde et al. (1988) compared the results of MacLean (1941) and Wilkes (1979) with the work of Kollmann and Malmquist (1956) and Siau (1983). In addition, TenWolde et al. developed a linear regression equation similar in form to those developed by MacLean (1941), Wilkes (1979), and Kollmann and Malmquist (1956) and a nonlinear regression  equation similar in form to that developed by Siau (1983). TenWolde et al. (1988) concluded that, at 12% moisture content, their linear regression equation gave essentially the same thermal conductivity results as Wilkes (1979), while MacLean's (1941) equation gave higher values. This is to be expected since TenWolde et al. used a data set quite similar to that used by Wilkes (1979). The primary difference in their regression analyses is that TenWolde et al. did not 'require that their equation's constant value be the thermal conductivity of air. TenWolde et al. also indicated that their nonlinear regression equation, which was quite similar to Siau's (1983), gave results that were marginally better than their linear regression equation for low densities and worse at higher moisture contents. They concluded that the linear thermal conductivity equation form is generally preferable due to its simplicity. TenWolde et al. also present tabulated values of the average ovendry and 12 moisture content thermal conductivities for a wide range of hardwoods and softwoods. WOOD PANEL PROD1.1CTS Wood Panel Products-Building Boards n Table 4 of Chapter 22 of the 1989 undamentals (ASHRAE 1989), the section dealing with wood-based building boards includes plywood (Douglas fir), vegetable fiberboard (eight different types), hardboard (three types, depending on density), particleboard (four density-dependent types), waferboard, and wood subfloor (the type of wood subtloor is not specified). As referenced in the Wood Species section of this paper, the Wood Handbook (FPL 1989) is also the primary source of infor-mation for wood panel products. Chapter 2 of the Wood Handbook FPL 1989) contains information on reconstituted wood products from fibers or fiber bundles. These products are the fiberboard and hardboard panels made by compressing and heating the wood fibers to specified thicknesses and densities and to which other materials, such as bonding agents, fire retardants, etc., have been added to improve specific properties. Much of the thermal properties work on fiber-based panel products was initially conducted by Lewis (1967), in which design curves of thermal conductivity vs. specific gravity were developed based on special laboratory-manufactured boards (no additives) and commercially available products in an ovendry condition. The thermal conductivity values were considerably less than that of solid wood, due, as Wangaard (1969) points out, to the large number of air spaces in the fiber-based panels. Recently, TenWolde et al. (1988) reviewed the literature on the thermal properties of wood panel products, namely, plywood, particleboards, and fiberboards. The authors recommended the Lewis (1967) design values for fiberboards of various densities with moisture contents below 10%; above 10%, TenWolde et al. indicated that more data are needed. t95 Some new thermal property data on fiber-based wood panels were reported by Kamke and Zylkowski (1989). Three different commercially available fiber-based panels were tested in the as-received condition in a heat flowmeter apparatus. The data were consistent with those reported by Lewis (1967), and the authors point out the quite consistent agreement with the relationship of thermal conductivity as a function of specific gravity developed by Suzuki (1981). Chapter in the Wood Handbook (FPL 1989) describes the properties of plywood. The very short section on thermal properties lists average thermal conductivity values for the four-species group defined in APA (1983). The Wood Handbook FPL 1989) assumes that the thermal conductivity of plywood is essentially the same as solid wood of the same species and density. The more recent works by TenWolde et al. (1988) and Kamke and Zylkowski (1989) do not support the above conclusion. TenWolde et aI., reportedly based on limited data, estimated the t/lermal conductivity of plywood at 0.86 that of solid wood of the same species. Kamke and Zylkowski (1989) report thermal conductivity data even lower than TenWolde's prediction. The authors attributed the large differences in thermal conductivity values for similar panels to knots in the laminates. They concluded that the presence of knots in laminates or wood veneer distorts the grain orientation, causing an increase in the thermal conductivity. TenWolde et al. concluded that insufficient data are available and more measurements are needed. Chapter 22 of the Wood Handbook (FPL 1989) divides wood-based particle panels into subgroups known as particleboards, flakeboards, waferboards, and oriented strandboards. The word particleboard is also used as a generic name for all particle panel products; however, in this paper, the more descriptive names for the particle panel products will be used. Particleboard refers to panels made from small wood particles of mill residue FPL 1989). After drying, these wood particles (or furnish) are blended with an adhesive binder (typically ureaformaldehyde resin is used for interior applications and phenol-formaldehyde is used for protected exterior applications) and formed into layers of mats. The mats are moved to a platen press where the panel is formed under pressure and heated to the desired density and thickness. t should be noted that, as a result of the pressing operation, a density gradient is produced through the thickness of the board, with the two faces containing higherdensity furnish than the center layers. Lewis (1967) measured and developed design thermal conductivity values for ovendried particleboards. The values were lower than that of solid wood, due, as TenWolde ,et al. (1988) point out, to the diminished contact among jacent wood particles in the panel. TenWoldeet aL showed a curve of thermal conductivitYi:s ~a~~i~~~1; density (based on Lewis' [1967] design sured values for dry particleboard. The the relationship. However, as me,nti.oned,by  ditional data are needed to determine the effect of moisture on the thermal conductivity of the particleboard. Kamke and Zylkowski (1989) measured one industrial particleboard per ASTM C518 (1976). The reported thermal conductivity value k 0.80 Btu·in.lh·ftz· of [0.116 w/mK] at a density of 49 lbm/fil [785 kg/m3] and a moisture content of 6.6 ) was lower than the design value developed by Lewis (1967) at a comparable density k 0.94 Btu·· ft2.oF [0.136 w/m·K] at a density of 50 lbm/fil [801 kg/ m 3 ] . Table 22-4 in the Wood Handbook (FPL 1989) lists thermal conductivity ranges for three different densities of particleboard: low (25 to 37 lb/ft3 [400 to 593 kg/m3]), medium (37 to 50 lb/fil [593 to 801 kg/m3]), and high (50 to 70 lb/ft3 [801 to 1,121 kg/m3]). The ranges encompass the design thermal conductivity values developed by Lewis (1967). Flakeboard is the generic name for waferboard and oriented strandboard (OSB). The main difference between . flakeboards and particleboards is in the size of the particle; flakeboards contain larger wood particles called flakes,. Waferboards are manufactured from wafers (wide flakes) randomly oriented and bonded with an exterior-type adhe sive. OSB contains long, narrow flakes or strands aligned into layers. The strands in adjacent layers are aligned at right angles to each other. As with waferboards, an exterior-type adhesive is used. The Wood Handbook (FPL 1989) discusses these products in detail. There is a minimum amount of thermal data on either waferboard or OSB. Table 22-6 of the Wood Handbook (FPL 1989) lists thermal conductivity values for three thick nesses of waferboard. From these data, it is unclear wheth- er boards of different densities were tested and why thermal conductivity varied with thickness. Nanassy and Szabo (1978) published thermal data on waferboards using a transient technique. The thermal conductivity data were mea sured over a range of mean temperatures and moisture con- tents from 0 to 10 and represented two types of waferboard binders. As pointed out by TenWolde et al. (1988), the above thermal conductivity data were substantially below those of solid wood. This is consistent with the one flakeboard thermal conductivity (steady-state technique) data point reported by White and Schaffer (1981). All the above data are substantially lower than those listed in Table 22-6 of the Wood Handbook (FPL 1989). Recently, Kamke and Zylkowski (1989) measured thermal conductivity values for OSB at an average moisture content of 5 . The values were consistent with those mea- sured by Nanassy and Szabo (1978) for waferboard. TenWolde et al. (1988) recommended that until additional measurements are made on different types of flakeboards, the thermal conductivity of particleboard should be used. The next section describes the procedures used to determine the range of densities and thennal conductivities and the specific heat of wood species generally used in building construction. 196 WOOD SPECIES A large number of individual wood species are listed and described in the Wood Handbook (FPL 1972,1989) and in several ASTM standards (ASTM 1981; 1987a, b; 1988). Wood species groupings are given in NFPA (1982). Most publications give average values of the specific gravity (ratio of wood density to density of water) or the wood den sity itself. Since wood can absorb moisture, there are a number of density values that can be defined depending on its moisture content. Therefore, several moisture state con- ditions of wood will be defined first. The following definitions are from the glossary of the Wood Handbook (FPL 1989). Fiber Saturation Point: The stage in the drying or wetting of wood at which the cell walls are saturated and the cell cavities free from water. t applies to an individual cell or group of cells, not to whole boards. t is usually taken as approximately 30 moisture content, based on ovendry weight. Green: Freshly sawed or undried wood. Wood that has become completely wet after immersion in water would not be considered green but may be said to be in the ã green condition. Seasoning Removing moisture from green wood to improve its serviceability. Air-Dried: Dried by exposure to air in a yard or shed, without artificial heat. (Author's note: Air-dried lumber is usually between 15 and 25 moisture content.) Kiln-Dried: Dried in a kiln with the use of artificial heat. (Author's note: Kiln-dried lumber is usually 12 moisture content or lower.) . Ovendry Wood: Wood dried to a relatively constant weight in a ventilated oven at 102°C to 105°C. Moisture ontent The moisture content of wood is defined as the mass of moisture (water) divided by the ovendry mass of wood. If a wood sample at a particular moisture content is accurately weighed before and after being ovendried, the difference of the two measurements will be the mass of moisture con- tained in the wood sample, .and the final measurement is the ovendry mass of the wood sample. f the volume of the wood sample is also accurately measured before and after being ovendried, several density (and, therefore, specific gravity) values can be defined. One is based on the dry wood itself, which is the ratio of the ovendry mass to the ovendry volume. A second is the ratio of the mass at moisture content to the ovendry volume, and a third is the total density, which is the ratio of the total mass to the volume, both at moisture content M In various publica-tions, these and other density values are used, and it is important to know which definition is being used. Since the density of wood is so dependent upon the moisture content
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