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Global Education Policy and International Development: An Introductory Framework Antoni Verger, Mario Novelli and Hulya Kosar Altinyelken [Chapter 1 in: Verger, A., M. Novelli and H. K. Altinyelken (eds.). Global Education Policy and International Development: New Agendas, Issues and Policies. Continuum, London] About this book Today, as we speak, similar education reforms and a common set of education policy jargon are bein
    Global Education Policy and International Development: An Introductory Framework  Antoni Verger, Mario Novelli and Hulya Kosar Altinyelken [Chapter 1 in : Verger, A., M. Novelli and H. K. Altinyelken (eds.). Global Education Policy and International Development: New Agendas, Issues and Policies. Continuum, London] About this book Today, as we speak, similar education reforms and a common set of education policy jargon are being applied in many parts of the world, in locations that are incredibly diverse both culturally and in terms of economic development. Education policies and programmes such as child-centred pedagogies, school-based management, teachers’ accountability, public-private partnerships or conditional-cash transfer schemes are being discussed and implemented everywhere, to the point that they have acquired the status of ‘global education polices’ (GEP). More and more researchers, coming from different disciplines and sub-disciplines such as comparative education, political sociology, anthropology and political sciences, are paying attention to the GEP phenomenon. Traditionally, scholars have used very diverse terms to refer to this phenomenon, such as policy diffusion, policy borrowing, policy transfer, policy travelling, isomorphism or convergence, among others. However, paradoxically, existing research on GEP does not always incorporate processes of globalisation   into its analytical framework, at least in a comprehensive way. Quite often, research on the topic does not provide an account of how and why policies are globally constructed and settled in global agendas. They are focused on the international   dimension of the policy process, i.e. they look at the transfer of policies ‘within countries and across countries’ (Stone 2004, p. 545) or as a ‘boundary-crossing practice’ (Peck et al. 2010, p. 169), but do not grasp the global dimension that education policy-making is now acquiring. Another habitual problem in the policy transfer literature is that it often implies a dichotomist split between the local and the global ‘levels’ and represents them as separate layers of educational governance (Mukhopadhyay et al. 2011). When doing so, research fails to capture the complexity of global politics and the fact that different political scales are mutually constituted (Robertson et al. 2002). Furthermore, much research on GEP does not provide sufficiently rich empirical evidence on the interplay between processes of globalisation and the re-contextualisation of education policy in local places. Doing so is methodologically challenging, but if we attempt to understand education policies globally, the study of the    complex relationships between global ideas, its dissemination and re-contextualisation becomes a key task (Ball 1998). This book contributes to addressing these and other challenges that globalisation poses in education policy analysis. Its main objective is to analyze the reasons, agents and factors behind the globalisation of educational policy and, by doing so, reflect on the structures, processes and events through which a global education policy landscape is being constituted. Contributions to the book provide an in-depth theoretical and empirical understanding of educational change and education reform in an increasingly globalizing world. The authors are a mix of established and up and coming, Southern and Northern, scholars with great expertise in the analysis of specific global programmatic ideas. The book also draws on the special contribution of Roger Dale and Gita Steiner-Khamsi. In their concluding remarks, these two distinguished scholars look at the GEP phenomenon and, in particular, to the cases collected in the book, with the different theoretical lenses through which they look at the globalisation-education relationship, and as a way to develop some crucial and srcinal insights. The case studies collected in the volume reflect, on the one hand, on the capacity of international organisations and other political actors to shape education agendas and disseminate education polices globally. On the other, they analyze the complex process of the re-contextualisation of global policies at the country level, and their effects on educational governance. India, Brazil, South Africa, Turkey, Kenya, Uganda and Central-America are some of the locations in which the case studies have been developed. In the different studies, authors look at the globalisation-education relationship from multiple theoretical perspectives, including neo-institutionalism, constructivism, international political economy and social movements theory, and by applying different methodological approaches, mainly qualitative, such as comparative analysis, the vertical case study or discourse analysis. Despite their diversity, all chapters in this volume converge on the idea that processes of globalisation   have drastically altered the education policy landscape across the world and, more particularly, in developing country contexts. To a great extent, this book focuses on the developing world due to the particular nature and intensity of global influences therein. Developing countries, especially Less-Developed Countries, are often highly dependent on foreign expertise, information and financing (Rose 2007). In fact, in low-income contexts, there is a bigger presence of external actors including international NGOs, donor agencies and international organisations (IOs) that have a great capacity – both material and ideational - to set agendas and country priorities. In this sense, these countries’ policy landscapes are much    more penetrated than countries in more industrialized societies (although the current financial crisis and the way it is being managed in many European countries is challenging this premise). Furthermore, from the point of view of policy transfer, developing states are not only the object of a more intense flow of external pressures, but also depend on hindered capacities to mediate supranational policy pressures (Grek et al. 2009). Taking globalisation ‘seriously’ While notoriously slippery and expansive (Rupert 2005), today, globalisation is a very well established term in the social sciences. It can be broadly defined as a constitutive process of increasing interdependence between people, territories and organisations in the economic, political and cultural domains. The dominant processes of globalisation can be characterized as hyper-liberalism in the economic domain, governance without government in the political domain, and commodification and consumerism in the cultural one (Dale 2000). Globalisation is a very convenient concept for social scientists due to its euphemistic character and due to all the meanings it subsumes within it. Nevertheless, on occasions, referring to the supranational would be more accurate than to the global since many of the trends we are witnessing in education policy have a regional (and not necessarily global) scope. Taking globalisation seriously implies capturing the multiple ways globalisation affects education policy. In the following lines, we detail a comprehensive, although not exhaustive, list of impact dimensions of globalisation in education policy. Some of them will then be further developed in this introductory chapter. ã  Globalisation generates new inputs for education policy-making and defines new problems that education policy needs to address   (Ball 1998).  Among them, the transformation of the labour market and the re-organisation of work worldwide standout. In a global economy, most countries aim at raising their international competitiveness by offering knowledge-intense products and services, and new manpower profiles. Accordingly, they expand education and base its contents and processes on skills, competences and the notion of flexibility (Carnoy 1999). ã  Globalisation, or the ‘idea of globalisation’ (see Hay 2006), alters the capacity of welfare state s   to address education and non-education problems via education policy, as well as their capacity for providing and financing education directly.    ã  Globalisation revitalizes the role of international agencies   in the making of educational policy. Among them, international governmental organisations (IOs) with an explicit or implicit education mandate, such as the World Bank, the OECD or UNESCO, stand out. However, globalisation also brings new international players into education policy-making, most of which are non-governmental, including transnational corporations and foundations, international consultants, transnational advocacy coalitions and epistemic communities. ã  The revitalized role of international players in educational politics contributes to the   deterritorialisation of the education policy process   and to the ‘national’ territory losing its centrality in such processes (Robertson in this volume). Deterritorialisation implies the redefinition of the scale, the space and the dynamics through which education policy is being negotiated, formulated and implemented. International players have an increasing capacity to settle education agendas and define the priorities of countries concerning education reform processes, but also to impose certain policies via funding mechanisms and aid conditionality. ã  Beyond the formulation and dissemination of policies, some IOs have the capacity to transform the legal framework   of member-countries and, by doing so, alter the rules of the game through which policies are being formulated. The most remarkable case here is that of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) that, through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), modifies a range of in-country ‘regulatory barriers’ to cross-border trade in education including ownership, taxation, licensing or quality assurance rules (Verger 2009). ã  The advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT  ),  which are, at the same time, cause and consequence of globalisation, allow the intensification of the international circulation of policy ideas (Peck et al. 2010). ICT are also transforming education practices and the patters of education delivery by, for instance, reducing the costs of cross-border distance learning. ã  Globalisation also creates a transnational private market of education provision   that complements and/or competes against national education providers. This emerging global market challenges some of the core functions of conventional education systems such as ‘nation building’ (Robertson et al. 2002). ã  Neoliberalism ,   as the currently dominant political-economic ideology worldwide, frames many of the education policy ideas that circulate (Ball
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