Wide Area Populaton - Indus Valley

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Population distribution of Indus Valley
  󰀵󰀶 CHAPTER III HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION Until the early half of the twentieth century it was generally believed that the authentic history of India started withthe Macedonian attack led by Alexander. Some scholars like V.A. Smith were inclined to put the sixth century B.C.E. as a watershed after which the more reliable history of India is available. V.A. Smith (1904) mentioned that there is a wide gap between the Stone Age and historical period in India and settled life begin during the 6 th  -5 th  centuries B.C.E. i.e. during the Buddhist period. When John Marshal in 1924 announced the discovery of a forgotten civilization in the Illustrated London news, pushing back at a stroke the antiquity of the settled life in the India by 2000 years the theory of V.A. Smith was automatically proven wrong. It also changed the mind of western historians that there was no civilization in India before Buddha. This civilization was contemporary to the Mesopotamia and Egyptian civilizations. This civilization was quite different or we can say unique as compared to the Mesopatiana and Egyptian civilizations in terms of town planning. Its town planning comprised of the citadel and lower town; streets and lanes which intersect each other at right angle. The dazzling discovery of the Harappan Civilization in the early twentieth century was one of the most significant archaeological discoveries not in Indian sub-continent but in the world. The expansion of the civilization is now recognized over a total area of 1.5 million square km. extending Sutkangen-dor in Pakistan near Iran border in the west;Alamgirpur (Uttar Pardesh) in the east and Manda (Jammu and Kashmir) in the north and to Bhagatrav (Maharastara) in the south (Map 3.1).  󰀵󰀷 Map 3.1 Show expansion of Harappan civilization and major excavated sites Expansion of the Harappan civilization in the study area was first traced by Y.D. Sharma (IAR 1958-59:50-52). He conducted excavations at Alamgirpur and found Harappan pottery and antiquities in the lower levels. After that a number of  󰀵󰀸 scholars, have conducted explorations in the Upper-Ganga plains and discovered a number of sites (see table 2.2&3.2). Apart from these explorations some sites viz. Alamgirpur, Bargaon, Hulas and Sanauli have been excavated by Archaeological Survey of India. A brief description of excavated sites and other explored sites is given below. Alamgirpur The site was discovered and excavated ((IAR 1958-59:50-52) by Dr. Y.D. Sharma of Archaeological Survey of India. It is located on the left bank of river Hindon, a tributary of the river Yamuna and locally known as Parasram-ka-Khera. It spreads over an area of about 0.5 hectare. The excavations have revealed four cultural periods, with a break in all. The earliest deposit at the site belongs to late phase of Mature Harappan; total habitation deposit of this phase was 180 cm. Pottery of this period includes beakers, dish-on-stand, vases, jars, goblets, goblets with pointed base, straight-sided dish, cylindrical vase, perforated jars, chakla , dish with slightly incurved rim etc. Most of the pottery was treated with red slip. The painted motifs include geometrical, floral and faunal motifs. Geometrical designs are simple bands, triangles, squares, intersecting circles. Floral motifs include leaf and plant motifs and faunal motifs include peacock and dear. The hatching was done by parallel or criss-crossed lines. After a long gap of about 50 years the site was again excavated by University of Cambridge, the Deccan College, Pune and the Directorate of U.P. State  󰀵󰀹 Archaeology, Lucknow. In 2008 the site was reopened(Singh, R.N. MSS). Excavations has yielded below givencultural sequence (Table 3.1) Table 3.1. Cultural sequence at Alamgirpur Cultural period Thickness of the Deposit (maximum) Associated cultural material Period IA 1.90 m Harappan Period IB 0.60 m Harappan-PGW Mix Period II 1.60 m PGW Period III 0.30 m Early Historic pottery Period IV 0.30 m Late Medieval pottery Two circular structures along with floor made rammed clay and a mud wall are the only structures of the Harappan phase. Several phases of occupation are evident on the southern side of this wall but the deposits on the northern side had been disturbed by a series of pits. Pottery recovered from the Period IA include plain and painted red, red slipped, and grey wares. A limited quantity of black ware was also present. The main shapes in Harappan pottery include, perforated jars, cylindrical vases, lid with a central knob, shallow dishes with incurved rim, shallow basin with tapering sides,  jars with long neck and flaring mouth and miniature pots.The range of painted motifs decreases, and groups of painted bands become common in the upper levels. Painted motifs executed in black on red surface comprise simple bands, triangles, squares, circles, peacock- animal (  Nilgai ?), plants, birds and fish, etc. Some sherds bear simple graffiti marks and incised designs. Incised decoration recalls the typical Bara tradition. Some bone points, antler beads of terracotta, faience and semiprecious and
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